Sunday, August 10, 2014


After the Permian, the Gondwana Land and Eurasia were separated by the wide Tethys Sea. The fossils clearly indicate that between Permian and early Tertiary times a direct sea-connection existed between the present Indian Archipelago and the Mediterranean region, based upon the fossil assemblages which are practically indentical. In some cases they exhibit variations and specific differences, which indicate the formation of temporary land bridges or other barriers to the interchange of faunas within the Tethys Sea. But in the Eocene the water connection between the Mediterranean region and the East Indies was definitely severed by uplift, thereby cutting the Tethys area into a number of marine basins mutually separated by broad land areas. The Indo-Pacific faunal province with its more or less autochthonous development of the marine fauna is of post-Mesozoic age.
We have seen in the preceding paragraphs that in the Younger Paleozoic the East Indian area was submerged by seas, stretching between islands and land-masses. The crust at that time has been formed by older major cycles of mountain building, of which very little is known.
In the Young Paleozoic a great cycle of mountain building began in this area, which has developed since then in successive phases throughout the Mesozoic, Tertiary and Quaternary. The first indication of important differences of altitude at short mutual distances are found in West Borneo, where the Permo-Carboniferous occurs in littoral and neritic as well as deep-sea facies. Similar conditions may have occurred at that time in the Malay Peninsula.
The Mesozoic of the Indian Archipelago is characterized by the formation of parallel belts with sediments of widely different facies, which indicates that at that time the process of mountain building was in full swing.
In the Tertiary and Quaternary the orogenic conditions continued in other orogenic belts, which had shifted sidewards with respect to the Mesozoic ones. At present the orogenesis has been completed in the Mesozoic orogenic belts, whereas the younger ones still are in a state of active mountain building.
A synopsis of the stratigraphy of the Mesozoic has been given by WANNER (1931) and UMBGROVE (1935 a). For the sake of brevity in this chapter only some later contributions to the Mesozoic stratigraphy of Borneo, Sulawesi, Misool, Seram, Timor and Papua will be discussed. For further details, also for other islands, the reader is referred to the discussion of the regional geology in Chapter v.

Triassic in Borneo. The researches by ZEYLMANS VAN EMMICHOVEN in Central and West Borneo yielded important results for the stratigraphy of the Triassic (1938, 1939). Like the Permo-Carboniferous of this area, the Triassic occurs in a volcanic and a non-volcanic facies (1938, p. 138):
The normal sedimentary facies of the Upper-Triassic is a pronounced flysch type; it consists of conglomerates, polymict sandstones, clay-sandstones and clay-shales;
limestones are completely absent. The conglomerates are composed of detritus of acid plutonic rocks, the above mentioned Permo-Carboniferous rocks and schists. In numerous places, scattered all over the area, KREKELER found Monotis and Halobia; KROL had mentioned previously, in 1930, the fossils Steinmannites n.sp., Pseudomonotis cf. ochotica, and Monotis sp., determined by GERTH, who concluded from these fossils, without reserve, a norian age.
It is of interest that there occurs in many localities a greyish-blue clay shale, which has a black streak, due to its graphite content, which has been proved paleontologically in various places to be of upper-Triassic age. This rock, which is unknown in any other formation of West Borneo, is so characteristic that it can be considered an index-marker for the Upper-Triassic in this area.
The volcanic facies of the Upper-Triassic consists of effusiva and ejectamenta of an acid to intermediary-acid composition, which usually forms a transition to alkali- rocks (quartz-keratophyres to keratophyres). In some places their upper-Triassic age could be determined paleontologically.
Comparison of the Permo-Carboniferous and Upper-Triassic in West Borneo with Molengraaff's Danau Formation. The new results of the Geological Survey in the Sanggau-Sarawak area of West Borneo shed a new light on the age and facies of the classical "Danau Formation" as distinguished by MOLENGRAAFF (1900) in the Upper Kapuas area. Here again ZEYLMANS VAN EMMICHOVEN (1938. p. 138) can be quoted:
"Primarily the Permo-Carboniferous is characterized by the basic volcanic facies and by the chert facies. These types can be entirely correlated respectively with the Pulu-Melaju series and the siliceous series of MOLENGRAAFF'S Danau Formation, consisting of jasper, radiolarite, siliceous slate and cherts. On the one hand the chert facies (especially in the South of the area under discussion) is distinguished by its predominantly light colouring and often cavernous character, but on the other hand (in Sarawak) there are transitional types, which cannot be distinguished from the typical siliceous rocks of the Danau Formation. Also other rocks from the Permo- Carboniferous, such as phyllites, clay slates, and limestones, are represented in the Danau Formation. But the quartzites and sandstones, which MOLENGRAAFF includes also in his Danau Formation, do not occur in the Permo-Carboniferous of Sanggau-Sarawak; they belong to the Triassic. If this Permo-Carboniferous and Upper-Triassic of Sanggau- Sarawak were as intensively folded as the Danau Formation in the Upper-Kapuas area, two distinct zones would also have resulted there. In that case the two "key-series" of the Permo-Carboniferous would have been interfolded with the Triassic to such an extent that both formations would have to be considered as one unit. MOLENGRAAFF'S Danau Formation as a whole should be correlated, therefore, with the Permo-Carboniferous and the Upper- Triassic, whereby the two key-series should be correlated with the Permo-Carboniferous 1).
The presence of the coarser clastic sediments in the Danau Formation has often been raised as an unsurmountable objection against the deep-sea facies of the radiolarites. This objection now appears to be faulty, because with intensive isoclinal folding it is to be expected that conformable alternations of (Permo-Carboniferous) cherts and (upper-Triassic) conglomerates originated. This would also apply to the Sanggau-Sarawak area. However, with the removal of this objection, not all objections against the deep-sea character of the Danau Formation are explained. In the southern part of the Sanggau-Sarawak area the cherts came into being as a result of silicification of originally totally different rocks. The siliceous facies is, consequently, not a primary feature, and therefore, it can not be considered as characteristic for the conditions of the sedimentation. Also the presence of Radiolariae, which in MOLENGRAAFF'S days still counted as a criterion for abyssal deposits, has now lost its significance in this respect. However, the fish-teeth with dissolved dentine, the manganese nodules, and especially the uniform development in a comparatively narrow, very long zone, which extends right across all of Borneo, still are strong arguments for a pelagic and deep-sea facies. In MOLENGRAAFF'S last paper concerning this problem (1922), he was acquainted with the westward extension of the "radiolarite-zone" only up to the North of the Lake- district. At present it can be traced farther in WNW- direction up to Kuching; consequently it forms a rather narrow belt, slightly convex to the South, which extends from Kuching to Berau over a distance of 800 km.
MOLENGRAAFF'S conception (1922), that the siliceous facies of the Danau Formation originated in a narrow, very deep-sea, is therefore still possible. As is proved now in Sanggau-Sarawak, this deep trough passed southward over a short distance into a shallow sea, in which the above mentioned Permo-Carboniferous was deposited, the normal sedimentary facies of which is undoubtedly of a neritic character, as appears from the presence of combustible shales and limestones with Fusulinidae and Bryozoa. In any case, the Danau Formation has not an oceanic facies, as was already pointed out by MOLENGRAAFF in 1922.

B.5.1.1. Jurassic in W- end SE-Borneo.
The age-determination of Jurassic areas of the Chinese Districts in West Borneo, surveyed by Wing Easton (1904), was based on Protocardia, Exelissa and Perisphinctes W AAG. In later years these fossils proved to occur also in the Lower Cretaceous, so that the Jurassic age of these areas is not longer proved (ZEYLMANS VAN EMMICHOVEN, 1938. p. 139). In the Meratus Range of SE-Borneo, KOOLHOVEN (1935), distinguishes two Jurassic formations: the Alino Formation and the Paniungan Beds. The Alino Formation is characterized by the association of radiolarian cherts with ophiolitic effusive rocks. Its age is not stated by key-fossils. KOOLHOVEN compares it with MOLENGRAAPP'S Danau Formation, presuming a Jurassic age. But after the revision of the age of the Danau Formation by ZEYLMANS VAN EMMICHOVEN this argument for a Jurassic age of the Alino Formation is no longer valid. However, in Chapter V arguments will be advanced, based on the geotectonic evolution of this area, that indeed the Alino Formation has a Jurassic age.
The Paniungan Beds have a more neritic facies. VON KOENIGSWALD determined in calcareous sandstones of this formation the gastropod Cylindrites, which fossil is known in Europe from Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous (see KOOLHOVEN, 1935).

B.5.1.2. Cretaceous in West and SE-Bomeo.
An important contribution to our knowledge of the Cretaceous in West Borneo was made by ZEYLMANS VAN EMMICHOVEN (1936, 1938, 1939). In the Seberuwang area, SE of Semitau, upper Kapuas, a detailed stratigraphy of the entire Cretaceous could be given with the aid of an extensive collection of fossils, examined by VON KOENIGSW ALD. The fossils of Seberuwang and their state of conservation resemble very much those of the Dusun Pobungo locality of Djambi, Sumatra, described by BAUMBERGER (1925).
MOHLER (1946 b), found in the material in which the ammonites of Seberuwang were embedded, some smaller Foraminifera, among which Trocholina PAALZOW. The latter genus has to date been known only from the Jurassic of Central Europe (Bajocian-Tithonian). This is the first find of this fossil in SE-Asia, where it appears to occur in the Lower Cretaceous.
This Cretaceous transgresses in the North over the Bojan Formation (for the greater part Upper- Triassic) and in the South it is unconformably overlain by the paleogene Plateau Sandstones.
KOOLHOVEN (1933 c, 1935), described the cretaceous formations in the Meratus Mts of SE-Bomeo. OrbitoUna-bearing limestones were formed in the Middle Cretaceous, and the Manunggul Formation with Nerinea (Ptygmatis) cf. requieni D'ORB. belongs to the Upper Cretaceous (see also MARTIN, 1889 a&b).
These middle-upper cretaceous beds are certainly younger than the peridotite massif in this area. On the other hand, these ultra-basic rocks are intrusive in the Paniungan Beds, which are probably of upper-Jurassic age. This is the only instance in the Indian Archipelago, where the age of the ophiolitic intrusions could be fixed between rather narrow limits; they were probably emplaced in the Lower Cretaceous.
These ophiolites are accompanied by intrusive breccias. In the peridotitic Pamali Breccia diamonds have been found which is one of the primary occurrences of the diamonds found downstream in the alluvial deposits of the Martapura area.

Since the appearance of RUTTEN'S book in 1927, important contributions to our knowledge of the Pre-Tertiary in Celebes, have been made by BOTHE (1927), BROUWER (1934, 1947), KOOLHOVEN (1930, 1932), VON Lóczy (1933/,34). Some critical remarks on the publications by VON Lóczy and his collaborators, have been published by members of the geological survey: HETZEL (1935), TAN SIN HOK (1935 d), and OOSTINGH (1935 b ). WANNER (1940, p. 97) supposes that Stomiosphaera moluccana occurs in limestones with Belemnites and Radiolaria described by VON L6czy (1934). WANDEL (1936, p. 515-16) described molluscs from the Nambo River in the East arm with Aucella malayo-maorica KRUMB. (Upper Oxfordian).

B.5.2.1. Central Sulawesi and adjacent parts of the island.
BROUWER (1947) gave a synopsis of the results of the geological explorations in Central Celebes in 1929. From this paper the following relative to the stratigraphy of the Mesozoic in Central Celebes can be quoted:
Triassic. "Triassic lamellibranchs (Casstanella or Hoernesia) have been found in marly limestones East of Era, in the eastern zone of Central Celebes (BROUWER, 1934, p. 175). Grey, red, brown and greenish limestones and marly limestones, which partly contain globigerines, radiolarian cherts and dark grey bituminous, partly crystalline limestones and marly limestones, which sometimes contain bands of dark coloured chert, occur in the same region. The last mentioned rocks bear some resemblance to the bituminous rocks in the eastern peninsula, which are probably of Permo-Carboniferous age (VON Lóczv, 1934, p. 237, 295, 296). In connection with the complicated structure, rocks of widely different age may occur together in the same complex.
Deposits, which mainly consist of shales and sandstones in the monotonous alternation of the flysch facies, more or less resembling the upper-Triassic flysch series of the neighbouring island of Buton (HETZEL, 1936), are of widespread occurrence in Celebes. In the SE arm fossils of upper-Triassic age have been found in a series of slightly metamorphic slates with intercalated sandstones (BOTHE, 1927). Other rock-series in the SE arm, Sand E of Lake Towuti, contain Globigerinidae.
Undeterminable remains oflarger perforate Foraminifera have also been found. The occurrence of grains of picotite or chromite in calcareous sandstones of this series points to an age younger than that of the ultrabasic rocks (BROUWER, 1934, p. 54-75). Eocene Camerina have been found in the northern peninsula in the slightly metamorphic Tinombo Formation (BROUWER, 1934, p. 59, 206, 207). In dark slates, belonging to the Bobakan Complex in western Central Celebes, ammonite remains have been found (REYZER, 1920, p. 164). A possibly cretaceous formation in the eastern peninsula, which contains micaceous sandstones and bituminous limestones, may also be mentioned here (VON L6CZY, 1934, p. 254).
It is clear that rock series of different age are developed in a flysch-like facies and, therefore, an upper-Triassic age cannot be derived from the facial characteristics of the rocks.
In the eastern peninsula, various fossils have been found as proof of the occurrence of the Triassic (VON LÓCZY, 1934, pp. 238-244). Among the different rocks of this age are marly and arenaceous limestones, sandstones argillaceous sandstones and massive coral limestones in which upper-Triassic brachiopods have been found (various species of MisoJia, Cruratula subeudora, Spiriferina cassiana, Rhynchonella arpadica). The massive limestones (Tokala Mountains), which are considered to be of upper- Triassic age, rest upon bituminous limestones for which a Permo-Carboniferous age has been considered highly probable by VON LÓCZY (1934). The Lower and Middle- Triassic have not been indentified. Jurassic.
As yet comparatively few fossil localities are known ~_ in the Jurassic of the investigated region (BROUWER, 1934, p.56, 172-179). Fossils, which prove a Jurassic age with certainty, have been found in the eastern and southeastern peninsula and in the regions, which connect these peninsulas with Central Celebes (BROUWER, 1934; VON LÓCZY, 1934; WANNER, 1931).
The Lower Jurassic (Lower Lias) is represented by a dark grey, brecciated limestone with Arnioceras cf. semilaeve in the eastern peninsula (WANNER, 1931, p. 5901)).
The Middle Jurassic as yet has not yielded characteristic fossils.
The Upper Jurassic has been located at various places in the eastern arc of Celebes. Belemnites in red, grey or white limestones and marls, which often contain radiolarian chert, prove that these rocks belong, partly at least, to the Upper Jurassic. The Aucella Zone of the Oxfordian, which has a large extension in the eastern part of the Malay Archipelago, is also found in the eastern arc of Celebes (WANDEL 1936, p. 5-15).
A large part of the Globigerina and Radiolaria bearing rocks, which are widely spread in Central Celebes and in the peninsulas, may be of Jurassic age. Cretaceous.
In Celebes, different facies of the Cretaceous are found. A facies of the Middle to Upper Cretaceous, consisting of dense limestones, marly limestones and shales with planktonic Foraminifera ("Globotruncana-fauna"), is of widespread occurrence in the eastern Malay Archipelago and is found in the eastern arc of Celebes.
In many respects they resemble the couches rouges of the Alps. Similar bathyal deposits are considered of Jurassic age and it is possible that sedimentation was continuous from the Jurassic to the Upper Cretaceous. A series, containing micaceous sandstones and bituminous limestones in the eastern peninsula is possible of cretaceous age (VON Loczv, 1934, p. 252).
In the Pangkadjene region in the southern peninsula a "clayshale-graywacke-arkose" formation ('T HOEN & ZIEGLER, 1917, p. 243) is possibly of cretaceous age. It disconformably overlies an apparently conformable series of crystalline schists (in combination with serpentines), quartzites and cherty shales and it is unconformably overlain by eocene sediments. This possible cretaceous formation has been compared with the upper Palelo Series of Timor (BROUWER, 1942), which partly is Upper Cretaceous and disconformably overlies a series of crystalline schists (in combination with ultra-basic rocks) and radiolarian cherts.
Formations known as the Volcanic Formation and the Maroro Formation have a large extension in West Central Celebes. The Volcanic Formation mainly consists of effusive rocks, volcanic tuffs and breccias, shales and slates, sandstones and conglomerates. The Maroro Formation, in many localities, consists of Globigerina-bearing variegated shales, marls, slates, sandstones and calcareous sandstones, limestones and conglomerates. Both the Volcanic Formation and the Maroro Formation are partly of Tertiary age.
In connection with a complicated structure, rocks of different age may now be found in close association in the same complex. Our knowledge of the distribution of Mesozoic rocks in West Central Celebes is still very incomplete. Ammonite remains have been located near Bobokan (REYZER, 1920, p. 164); limestones West of the Latimodjong Mountains contain Orbitolina and the cretaceous, probably upper-cretaceous, the coral Astrarea cf. columellata (BROUWER, 1934, p. 58, 168).
Some Globigerina and Radiolaria bearing rocks in the northern peninsula are possibly of cretaceous age (KOPERBERO 1928, I, pp. 21-27; SCHUBERT, 1913, p. 142). Diabases and tuffs, graywackes and other detrital rocks are associated with them. A flysch-like formation in the Tinombo region, in which eocene Foraminifera have been found, is accompanied by reddish, greenish and gray marls and Globigerina limestones. These, as similar rocks in the western part of Central Celebes, may be, at least partly, of young-Mesozoic age."
East arm of Celebes. The Nederlandsche Pacific Petroleum Maatschappij has put at the disposal of the present author a reconnaissance report on the East arm of Celebes by its geologist R. H. HOPPER, dated May 23, 1941. From this report some passages will be quoted in this chapter in so far they provide new data on the stratigraphy of the East arm. The area covered by HOPPER'S maps and report coincides more or less with that of KOOLHOVEN'S survey of the East arm of Celebes and the Banggai Archipelago (1930).
Triassic and Jurassic in the East arm or Celebes. (Fig. 43). "According to HOPPER (l.c.) this unit B of his stratigraphy ') consists of conglomerate, sandstone and quartzite, siltstone, slate, limestone, and radiolarian chert. The rocks are so intensely deformed by folding and faulting that it was not possible in a reconnaissance survey, to work out the stratigraphic sequence or even to determine with certainty which of the rock types are the more important in making up the section. It seems probable that limestone is areally more widespread than any other single type of sediment. The limestone is hard, crystalline, fine-grained, and white or flesh coloured to dark bluish gray. In general it shows no bedding, but locally lenses of reddish brown radiolarian chert, 2 to 4 cm thick, bring out the stratification. The limestone is almost entirely non-fossiliferous; at one locality, however, a sample showed indistinct ammonite-like impressions.
Hard, chiefly non-bedded slate, mostly dark bluish gray but occasionally greenish or reddish, makes up a considerable part of the Mesozoic section. The slate contains small quartzite laminae. No fossils were found in it.
Sandstones, siltstones, and quartzites whose weathered colours include green, blue, gray, pale yellow, and red, are present along the Singkojo-uso River. Siltstones and fine-grained sandstones are the most common types. In a one metre thick siltstone bed the only identifiable fossils of this unit were collected (Singkojo-uso River; see below).
The conglomerates are hard, well-cemented, and moderately well stratified in beds, 10 cm to 2 metres thick. Commonest rock types among the boulders, whose diameters generally range from 2.5 to 10 cm, are pink granite and quartzite.
Structural complexities of unit B are such that very mapping would be necessary before its thickness be estimated with any accurancy. It is believed, however, that this unit cannot be less than two or three hundred metres thick.
The true stratigraphic base of Unit B was not observed. lower contact, wherever seen, is an intrusive contact basic igneous rock. Unit B is overlain unconformably • lower and upper miocene rocks.
WANNER (1910 c) applied the name "Toeli limestone" all or part of the rocks here referred to as Unit B. He d no determinable fossils in this formation, but tatively correlated it with the Jurassic of Buru on lithology.
A fairly well preserved ammonite, found in the above mentioned locality of the Singkojo-uso River, was identified VON KOENIGSWALD as Harpoceras cf. toarcense D'ORBIGNY, of lower-Jurassic age (Lias). This fossil had previously been reported from Jefbie and Fialpopo, small islands in the Misool Archipelago.
In somewhat similar rocks in the Tokala Mts, 10 km NW of Kolo Bay, VON Lóczy (1933/,34) found Triassic well as Jurassic fossils 1).
Thus it is possible that Unit B contains both Triassic and Jurassic sediments. Strata of these ages occur in numerous places throughout the Timor - East Celebes geosyncline (UMBGROVE 1938 a, pp. 10, 14).
The sediments of Unit B are probably wholy of marine origin. Both shallow- and deep-water deposits are represented.

B.5.2.2. Cretaceous in the East arm of Celebes.
The Unit C is probably of cretaceous age. Exposures were found only in the eastern part of the East arm.
Unit C consists of soft to firm. light buff to purplish gray (weathered) micaceous siltstone and shale, with occasional harder interbeds of fine-grained limy sandstone. Stratification is in general rather poorly developed, with beds 0.3 to 3 metres thick. Foraminifera are common.
The maximum observed thickness of Unit C, measured along the Biak-Poh road, is 210 metres. The complete thickness may be much greater, however, for the base of the Cretaceous is not exposed. Its lower contact, whereever exposed, is either a fault contact or an intrusive contact with basic igneous rock (Unit F).
The Cretaceous is overlain disconformably by Paleogene or lower Miocene (Unit D or Unit E). The Paleogene- Cretaceous contact is exposed only on the Biak-Poh road about 2 km South of Mahap and on the Poh-Pagimana road near Talojon; angular unconformity is very slight or lacking, but the basal part of the paleogene limestone is conglomeratic.
Just North of Mahap, and at two localities along the Poh-Pagimana road, the lower-miocene Unit E directly overlies Cretaceous. There is no noticeable angular unconformity between the Cretaceous and the overlying Miocene, the Miocene however, predominantly a limestone unit, is sandy and conglomeratic at its base.
The N.P.P.M paleontological laboratory at Medan reports that Foraminifera are common and well preserved in the cretaceous samples submitted from the East arm of Celebes. Characteristic cretaceous forms found in these samples include:
Globotruncana rosetta (CARSEY)
Guembelina globulosa (EHRENBERG)
Pseudotextularia frusticosa (EGGER)
Globotruncana-bearing Cretaceous sediments are found widely distributed throughout the Timor - East Celebes geosyncline and in the Vogelkop of New Guinea (UMBGROVE, 1938 a, p. 20).
According to the paleontological staff, the fauna of Unit C indicates that the shales and sandstones of this unit were laid down in shallow warm water.
Age of the basic and ultra-basic intrusive rocks in the East arm of Celebes. Basic intrusive rocks, such as gabbros, peridotites and serpentines, are widely distributed in the East arm, but there is considerable divergence of opinion as to their age.
WANNER (1910 c) and HoTZ (1913) agreed that the basic plutonic rocks intrude the lower miocene sediments. The former believed that these rocks intruded also the "Celebes Molasse" (Mio-Pliocene) .
RUTTEN (1927, p. 577-580) and KOOLHOVEN' (1930), concluded that these basic intrusive rocks were probably of Mesozoic age, for gabbros and peridotites elsewhere in the Archipelago are Mesozoic.
VON Lóczy (1933/'34), dated their phase of intrusion as post-Upper Cretaceous and pre-Upper Eocene, on account of contact phenomena in Jurassic and cretaceous limestones (marmorization, silicification) and the presence of boulders of gabbros and serpentine in upper eocene limestone. KOOLHOVEN (1930), observed also macroscopical serpentine fragments in lower-miocene limestone.
HETZEL (1935, p. 30) draws attention to a report of Dr H. W. SCHAAD 2), who worked together with VON L6czy in the area of North Bungku and Bongka. SCHAAD observed rounded fragments of ophiolitic rocks in presumably upper-Jurassic, Belemnites-bearing limestones and marls. This occasioned UMBGROVE (1935 a, p. 148, 150), to the remark that the Mesozoic basic eruptiva of the Timor-East Celebes Zone might belong for, the greater part, if not entirely, to the Lower Mesozoic (Trias).
HOPPER, on the other hand, has a similar opinion as WANNER and HOTZ, that the ophiolites are Neogene. HOPPER assigns a middle-miocene age to them (Unit F of his stratigraphy). This geologist bases his opinion on the observation of occurrences of ophiolitic rocks in the Old-Miocene in the Poh-Mahap district, and basic dikes in the Basabungan River at the North coast (South of Pangimana). The rocks first mentioned are explained by KOOLHOVEN (1930), as the result of imbrication by tectonic forces, so that they are not true intrusions.
The Basabungan dikes, however, seem too coarse- textured to be feeder dikes of the later basaltic volcanics at the base of the "Celebes Molasse". These dikes are mostly fresh and fine grained near the contact. Furthermore, they are partly serpentinized, whereas the younger volcanics are quite fresh. These basic dikes in the Basabungan River are considered by HOPPER as true offshoots of the main plutonic mass.
In this relation attention may be drawn to the observations of ROOTHAAN (1928), in the Talaud Islands, where the main intrusion of the basic igneous complex occurred after the (Mesozoic?) slates and radiolarian cherts and before the basal tertiary breccias, which contain its denudation products. But, most probably, the base of the series of sandstones and marls (Lower Miocene?) has also been intruded by basic igneous rocks. Therefore, two phases of basic igneous intrusions have probably occurred in the Talaud Islands, which form the northern extension of the East Celebes Zone.
This might also be true for the East Celebes geosyncline. For the data at hand suggest that the main phase of intrusion occurred at the end of the Mesozoic or the beginning of the Tertiary, and an after-phase in the Young Tertiary.
SCHAAD'S observations indicate that there has also been an older, pre-upperJurassic phase of ophiolitic intrusions.
Such ophiolites are usually connected with geo-synclinal downwarps, and it is conceivable that this process was repeated several times. In Chapter V the conception will be given, that in the course of the Mesozoic, Tertiary and Quaternary a system of crustal waves developed from the Celebes Basin in a southward direction. In the migrating foredeeps of this system basic and uItra-basic magma ascended, forming parallel zones of ophiolites of different age, which were thrust southward in the course of the process of orogenesis.
Age of the ultra-basic intrusive rocks in the Southeast arm of Celebes. In the Southeast arm of Celebes a large intrusive mass of peridotites and serpentines occurs in the Verbeek Mountains and farther southeastward, while several smaller outcrops also are found in the southern part of this arm (i.e. around Kolaka) and in the islands Wowoni, Buton and Kabaena. With a total outcrop area of about 8000 sq km, this peridotite massif is probably the greatest of its kind on earth (RUITEN, 1927, p. 554). It differs from the ophiolitic rocks of the East arm in the fact, that gabbroic rocks are scarcer. These are found East of Malili, in Mt Moliowo, and in the Luwuk district of the East arm; but in the peridotite massif of the Southeast arm gabbros occur only as restricted dikes and nests, being, at least partly, younger than the peridotites. The age of this enormous peridotite massif is supposed to be pre-Cretaceous, according to KOOLHOVEN (1932), who assumes that the deep-sea sediments of his lower-Marano Beds were deposited upon a sea floor which consisted partly of peridotites. These Matano beds contain Globotruncana and other cretaceous smaller Foraminifera in its higher horizons. KOOLHOVEN found neither dikes of the underlying peridotites nor contact-metamorphism in the Matano Beds. However, the Matano Beds are separated from the peridotites by an intensely mylonitized horizon some dozens of metres in thickness, consisting of serpentines with lenses of epidote-amphibolite, quartzite (piedmontite-quarzite), and floats of amphibolite, garnet-amphibolite, and mylonitized aplite. Therefore, it is possible that the contact zone between the cretaceous Matano Beds and the peridotite has been altered dynamo- metamorphically and squeezed out by later internal differential movements, or that the contact is entirely anomalous, the Matano Beds forming an overthrust nappe. So it is not certain that the Matano Beds are younger than the ophiolites.
BROUWER (1934) found South and East of Lake Towuti a calcareous clay-sandstone formation of unknown age, which is interfolded with Globotruncana-limestones and old-miocene limestones and calcareous sandstones. These formations are locally overthrusted by wedges of serpentines.
The clay-sandstone formation consists of limestones, shales, sandstones and graywackes. In calcareous sandstones and flesh coloured Globigerina- limestones clastic constituents were determined, such as quartz, feldspar, chert, fragments of volcanic rocks, moreover, the heavy fraction contains ilmenite. picotite, epidote, zirconium, titanite, tourmaline, rare garnet and rutile. The picotite indicates that this formation is younger than the basic and ultrabasic rocks. However, the age of this formation is not known. It might belong to the oligo-miocene deposits but it might also be older. The description indicates a lithological resemblance with the Pornpangeo Formation in Central Celebes, which the present author places, tentatively, in the upper- most Cretaceous, chiefly on tectonic considerations (see Chapter V. schematical sections across Central Celebes. fig. 172 on plate 20).
The problem of the age of the peridotites has neither been solved in the southern part of the Southeast arm or in Buton. BOTHE (1927. p. 100). dates the intrusion as post-Jurassic and pre-Miocene. HETZEL (1936, p. 21), says that the peridotites in Buton are older than the miocene Tondo Beds, but nowhere an intrusive contact with the Mesozoic has been observed. This author (1. c., p. 10) mentions, however, the presence of detritus of serpentine and of Globotruncana-limestone in the lower-tertiary Wani-Beds, which attests a pre-lower tertiary age of the ophiolites. Wherever the contact between Mesozoic sediments and peridotites was observed, it appeared to be an anomalous fault contact. The Trias sic flysch of South Buton contains locally dikes and sills of diabases, while strongly crushed basalt and olivine-diabase porphyrite occur in Globotruncana-limestones (Cretaceous) of North Buton.
It is conceivable that in the Southeast arm of Celebes, like in the East arm, the intrusion of the ultra-basic masses comprises a very long period, separating into several phases of activity.
The intrusion of basic and ultra-basic igneous rocks is generally associated with geosynclinal sub-sidence. It is possible that sedimentation proceeded on the seafloor, while the ophiolitic masses underneath rose to higher levels. The poorness of these magmas in volatile constituents and their relatively low temperature indicates that the contact phenomena and pyre-metasomatism in the overlying rocks and sediments are of minor importance or absent. Moreover, these magmas were not intruded diapirically by upward pressure, like the intermediary and acid calc-alkaline magmas in the orogenic phases of evolution, when geanticlines are pushed up from the geosynclines. This may be another reason, why off-shoots from the main intrusive body are rare (apart from injections of sills, due to inversion of density stratification). Therefore, such negative arguments, as the absence of contact phenomena and of intrusive off-shoots in sedimentary series, are of little value in fixing the age of the ultra-basic masses. On the other hand, such processes as silicification of limestones and other rocks, the injection of sills, or the occurrence of basic submarine volcanism might be interpreted as signs that in deeper crustal levels the front of the basic and ultra-basic magma was rising.
The author is of the opinion that the emplacement of the peridotite massif in the Southeast arm of Celebes occurred during the Mesozoic geosynclinal subsidence, and that its intrusion was completed at the end of the Mesozoic.

Misool occupies a singular position in the eastern part of the Archipelago; it lies more or less outside the reach of the various younger orogenic systems which can be distinguished in that area. Consequently. its sedimentary strata are generally only gently tilted, the stratigraphical succession being clear. Moreover. these Mesozoic deposits are rich in well preserved fossils and the series is rather completely developed. Therefore, Misool can be considered as a key area for the Mesozoic stratigraphy in this part of the Archipelago.
A summary of the Mesozoic stratigraphy of Misool has been published by WANNER (1931) and UMBGROVE (1935 a); additional data on Foraminifera of the Main and Lower Cretaceous were given by WANNER (1940). while WANDEL (1936) described the Jurassic molluscan fauna of Misool. Furthermore, J. VOGLER (1941) described the upper-Jurassic and cretaceous faunae of microfossils of this island. The oldest member of the Triassic is a flysch- like series of shales and sandstones (Keskain Beds) with lower carnian or perhaps even ladinian Daonella and Halobia. According to Dr Fr. WEBER • the Keskain Beds are unconformably overlain by the lower norian Nucula-marls, which are an epicontinental shelf-sea deposit of only 12 m thickness (JAWORSKI. 1915).
The Nucula-marls pass upward with a graditional contact into massive reeflimestones, calledAthyrides limestones (? Middle-Upper Norian). The latter are about 50 m thick (BOEHM, 1910; KRUMBECK, 1913). They have been named after their rich fauna of Misolia (VON SEIDLITZ. 1914). containing corals. molluscs. etc.
The Jurassic of Misool lies unconformably upon the Upper Triassic. It is rather completely developed, showing affinities with the Jurassic of the Sula Islands. especially in the lower horizons. but in the higher part of the section there is a closer anology to the Jurassic of Ceram and Buru.
The Jurassic series begins with some metres of coarse grained sandstone without fossils, succeeded by marly shales and limestones of the Upper Lias- Dogger. The Oxfordian is represented by the Lilinta Beds (sandstones and shales. with Aucella, etc.) and the Kimmeridgian by the Lower Fat jet Limestones. According to WANNER (1940. p. 94), the latter (overlying immediately the Fat jet shales with Belemnopsis gerardi] contain Stomiosphaera moluccana and Cadosina fusca.
To the Cretaceous belong the Upper Fatjet Limestones (WANNER, 1910 b), which are massive limestones without chert at the base, passing upward into marly limestones, white and reddish dense limestones with chert. The Upper Cretaceous is represented by marls with inocerams, rudists, echinids, and Globotruncana.
The tables given by WANNER (1931), STOLLEY (1934. p. 484-485), and WEBER (in UMBGROVE. 1935 a), are combined in the following ideal stratigraphical section of the Mesozoic in Misool (fig. 23) and in table 9. 1).
It is remarkable that the Upper Cretaceous of Misool has the character of deposits in a shallow sea near to the coast, partly even with a deltaic bedding. On the other hand the Upper Cretaceous of Ceram (for instance that of Nief and Bula) has a bathyal facies. This indicates that Misool was situated at that time near to the northern boundary of the young-Mesozoic geosyncline of Ceram.
Recently the island of Misool has been surveyed by Dr P. M. ROGGEVEEN, geologist of the "Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij", from whose report the following additional data are quoted with the permission of this oil company: (see also fig. 189, and fig. 190 on plate 12).
"The Cretaceous can be divided lithologically into an upper and lower part.
The Upper Cretaceous consists mainly of browngray marly clays, partly somewhat sandy, with rare interbeds of marly sandstone. Inocerams and Globotruncana are common. Thickness about 500 m, disappearing westward under the overlapping Miocene.
The Lower Cretaceous differs lithologically from the upper part, but paleontologically it can not be separated from it. It is composed of gray, thick bedded or platy, har~, dense, somewhat siliceous limestones with chert nodules and bands. Thickness about 450 metres.
Dr W. A. MOHLER stated that in ROGGEVEEN'S samples were found: Globotruncana linnei (D'ORB.), G. stuarti (LAPP.) and the genera Venti/abre//a, Guembelina and Inoceramus.
The Jurassic is characterized by canaliculate belemnites and/or Aucella sp, and in some localities by ammonites.
In the upper course of the Fageo River, the basal strata of the Jurassic are well exposed (sandy and calcareous sandy sediments with some conglomeratic interbeds, which contain detritus of the Upper Triassic, such as quartz, shales, and lydite). This basal part of the Jurassic lies with an angular unconformity upon the Triassic. The upper part of the Jurassic section in the Fageo River is formed by a fossil-rich series of calcareous clay shales and sandy marl-limestone. The thickness of the Jurassic in the Fageo section is estimated at about 750 m. Dr W. A. MOHLER found in RooGEVEEN's samples Inoceramus ga/oi BOEHM, Aucella sp. and Harpoceras. The latter fossil is known in Europe in the Upper Lias and Lower Dogger.
The Triassic consists of a steeply dipping series of clay shales with intercalations of quartzitic (sometime) conglomeratic) sandstones. Layers of flinty slate (lydites occur in the shales, besides quartz veins and stringers".

Age revision of Loveenipora, VAN DER SLUIS (1947), critizises the current opinion that the presence of Triassic deposits on Ceram has been proved by fossils. This author comes to the conclusion that the so-called upper-Triassic molluscs in the Moluccas are stratigraphically of little value.
The coral Lovcenipora vinassai GIATIINI, and Pseudocyc/ammina occur in East Ceram in upJ2er Jurassic limestones.
The age determination of Upper Triassic in Ceram hits• often been made by means of Lovcenipora. But later researches by RENz (Abh. Schweiz. Pal. Ges. 50, 1930) and LEUPOLD and MAYNE (Eel. geol. Helv. 28, I, p. 129), have shown that Lovcenipora is known exclusively from upper-Jurassic deposits, often occurring together with Pseudocyclammina, Choffatella, and the alga Clypeina.
This association is known from southern France, Switzerland, Dalmatia, Greece, Cyprus, Japan and Sumatra. The supposed Triassic age of Lovcenipora is the result of a wrong estimate of the age of the formation in which it was originally found. MUSPER (1934) was the only author on the geology of the Indian Archipelago who did not make this mistake. Reading the publications on the geology of Central Ceram by GERMERAAD (1946) and on West Ceram by V ALK (1945), one has to boor in mind that when they speak of deposits with Lovcenipora the age is Upper Jurassic and not Upper Triassic.
A second proof for Upper Jurassic is provided by finds of Pseudocyc/ammina, occurring together with Lovcenipora in East Ceram.
Other fossils in the deposits with Lovcenipora of Ceram are the following: Pachypora (Lovcenipora) together with brachiopods and gastropods are mentioned by DENINGER (1918) from several localities; for instance, near Kaniki in Central Ceram, from which locality GERMERAAD mentions also brachiopods in Lovcenipora-limestones. KRUMBECK (1923 a), determined 29 species in DENINGER'S collection but not one is identical with previously known species. KRUMBECK'S age determination was based on some resemblance with species from the Upper Triassic of Buru, Misool and Timor. The value of this age determination is small, taking into account that Lovcenipora is restricted to the Upper Jurassic, while the Upper Triassic of Buru and Timor has been determined partly with this fossil.
WANNER (1907), described deposits of East Ceram, containing: Pachypora in tabulata (Lovcenipora vinassai), Halorella, Monotis salinaria Br., Amonotie. The presence of Monotis salinaria would be a strong indication for the Triassic age of these deposits. But according to VAN DER SLUIS, the description and reproductions in WANNER'S paper are not convincing 1).
The observations in the field are also in favour of a Jurassic age. DENINGER, visiting Buru in 1906, observed that Jurassic limestones were overlain by limestone with Pachypora. On account of this fossil he considered the latter limestones as Upper Triassic, but nowhere did he observed any traces of upthrusts.
DENINGER (1910, p. 12) wrote that the limestones with Pachypora overlie the Mefa Beds, which belong to the Oxfordian (as has been confirmed by STOLLEY, 1934), so that these horizons as well as the Daonella Beds of Ceram reach at least into the Upper Jurassic. It is regrettable that WANNER, who studied DENINGER'S material after the death of the latter, without further discussion accepted the Triassic age of Lovcenipora, which has caused much stratigraphical confusion.
In Chapter V the possibility is discussed that two flysch series might be distinguished; a Triassic flysch on Misool, Ambon, Timor, etc., and a Jurassic flysch on Ceram, characterized by the presence of volcanic components (feldspar laths).
Age of the basic and ultra-basic rocks in Ceram. The age of the peridotites, gabbros and serpentines of Ceram, which has been dated as post-Triassic by previous authors, must also be younger as the result of VAN DER SWIS' opinion that part of the "UPEer Triassic" of Ceram belongs in fact to the Upper Jurassic. Their pre-neogene age follows from the presence of lower-neogene fossils in a breccia of serpentine and limestone. VAN DER SWIS (1947) is of the opinion that the ophiolitic intrusions occurred in the Cretaceous.
This opinion is corroborated by an observation of WEBER, who observed a basaltic sill in the Upl'er Cretaceous of the neighbouring island of MisoOl (B.P.M. report, Febr. 14, 1930).

FiG. 24. On plate 3. Geographic sketch map of Timor.
The regions in Netherlands Timor which have been mapped during the expedition to the Lesser Sunda Islands in 1937 under the leadership of BROUWER are:
I) Mollo region, and
II) Booi region (mapped by D. TAPPENBECK, 1939, Vol. I) 2) Fig. 223 on plate 27, and fig. 220.
III). Part of NE Netherlands Timor (mapped by A. L. SIMONS, 1939, Vol I).
IV)Region between Noil Tobe (Noil Tuninu) and Noil Bunu, NE of Basleo, and
V) region between Noil Bunu and Noil Aintenu (mapped by F. A. H. W. DE MAREZ OYENS, 1940, Vol. I).
VI) Southwestern Mutis region (mapped by W. P. DE ROEVER, 1940 a, Vol. II).
VII) Region in the district of Amfoan (mapped by J. H. VAN VOORTHUYSEN, 1940, Vol. II).
VIII) Miomaffo region, and
IX) Nun Pene region (mapped by F. P. VAN WEST, 1941 b, Vol. III). See fig. 229.
X) Part of the central basin of Timor,
XI) U-Oloh region and
XII) Kefamenanu region (mapped by D. L. DE BRUYNE, 1941 a, Vol. III).
The geological maps of regions in Portuguese Timor, which have been mapped in 1936 by the geologists of the Allied Mining Corporation (1937) are reproduced in Chapter V:
A. Aliambata (fig. 236)
B. Suete (fig. 238)
C. Pualaca (fig. 240)
D. Cribas (fig. 241)
Netherlands Timor. A recent advance in the knowledge of the pre-tertiary stratigraphy of Netherlands Timor has been attained by BROUWER, who made in 1937 an expedition to this island with DE MAREZ OYENS and several pupils. The results of this expedition have lately been summarized by BROUWER (1942 b), which paper will hereunder be quoted at some length in so far as it deals with the Permian and Mesozoic stratigraphy (pp. 365- 370). The Permian is discussed with the Mesozoic because these formations are intimately interfolded. The stratigraphic sequence is described for four regional tectonic units, ranging from Permian to Cretaceous or even Eocene 1).
"Several different facies representing simultaneous periods of deposition under widely different conditions are now found in superposition in the island of Timor. The principal facial changes are found in a direction normal to the longer axis of the original basin of sedimentation. We have divided the non-metamorphic Permian and Mesozoic formations into four main groups, which are of facial and tectonic significance: The Kekneno Series, the Sonnebait Series, the Fatu Complex, and the Palelo Series. Correlations can be based on a fairly large amount of stratigraphical evidence but many problems still await solution. Only some main facial groups are distinguished and the passage facies, which may also be of tectonic significance, have not been established in detail.
In the Permian striking facial differences exist between the Kekneno Series and the Sonnebait Series. Those between the Sonnebait Series and the Fatu Complex are sometimes dubious. Particularly the Triassic is exhibited in a most varied development of facies, which partly are known to continue in the Lias. Much less has become known about facial differences in younger Mesozoic time, except for those between the upper Palelo Series and the other rocks of younger Mesozoic age.
Stratigraphical tables for different regions, which have been studied in detail, are given by TAPPENBECK (1939, p.24-25), SIMONS (1939, p. 24-25), DE ROEVER (1940, p. 24-50), VAN WEST (1941 b, p. 26). 2) Kekneno Series.
This series mainly consists of sterile shales and sandstones to graywackes in the monotonous alternation of the flysch facies. The shales and sandstones are often micaceous and sometimes contain plant remains. Siliceous and iron- bearing concretions are also found. Marls, marly limestones, cherts, breccias, conglomerates are subordinate. Variegated shales and marls and deposits in halobiid facies may be like rocks of the Sonne bait Series and where similar rocks of both series occur in close proximity it is difficult to draw a sharp boundary between them. Beside Triassic rocks, fossiliferous Lower Permian has been found in the Kekneno Series (DE ROEVER, 1940).
The gases of the mud volcanoes in the island of Timor seem to originate from the Kekneno Series (WANNER, 1913, p. 148).
In the regions which were studied in detail no fossils were found younger than Triassic 1).
It is not certain, however, that the Kekneno does not comprise younger Mesozoic rocks.
The occurrence of intercalated cherts and shales with Radiolaria may indicate that clastic material was transported to deeper parts of the geosyncline during the deposition of the synorogenic Kekneno Series. That erosion of crystalline schists has played a part in the formation of the series is proved by the occurrence of schist-fragments in conglomeratic sandstones, while garnets have been found within the heavy mineral assemblages of several sandstones. Fragments of feldspar-rich volcanic rocks have alscbeen found (DE ROEVER, 1940).
The only indication that igneous rocks may occur in the Kekneno Series is the local occurrence of large detached blocks of mesocratic alkali-albitites amidst Permian rocks of this series in the SW-Mutis region.
The regional distribution of the Kekneno Series is connected with axial culminations. As this series has a low tectonic position, the largest exposure is found near the main axial culmination in the middle part of the northern half of Netherlands Timor. Sonnebait Series.
The Permian of this series principally consists of deposits of shallow depth: Limestones, marls, tuffaceous marls and tuffs. They contain a great wealth of fossils, among which corals, bryozoa, crinoids, blastoids, cephalopods and brachiopods are especially abundant. Limestones, composed almost exclusively of tests of fusulinids, are found at various places and are also considered as belonging to the Sonne bait Series.
From Lower to Upper Permian the following stratigraphical levels have been distinguished: Somohole-, Bitauni-, Basleo-, and Amarasso Beds. During the expedition of 1937 two new levels have been found: the Tea Wei Beds between the Bitauni and Basleo Beds and a zone in Lidak, which corresponds with the lowest part of the Bitauni Beds, because it only contains the more primitive ammonites of these beds (SIMONS, 1939, p. 18-20, and 99).
The Permian of the Sonne bait Series is accompanied by abundant igneous rocks of which the more acid rocks are alkali-trachytes and alkali-rhyolites, whereas the more basic ones, which have often been described as melaphyres and amygdaloidal melaphyres, appear to belong at least for a great part to trachybasalts and olivine basalts, while spiIites and poenites 2) were formed by metasomatic processes from these rocks.
Permian conglomerates occur at several places. Pebbles of various types of alkaline effusive rocks have been found in these rocks (DE ROEVER, 1942, p. 215). Conglomeratic crinoid limestones in the Mollo region contain pebbles of granite-aplite and chert. Fragments of crystalline schists have nowhere been found in these Permian conglomerates. Because conglomerates and effusive rocks of the Mollo region have been considered as belonging to the tectonic unit of the Fatu Complex (TAPPENBECK, 1939, p. 25, p. 100) they have been separated from the Sonnebait Series. We now believe that at least most of these rocks belong to the facial and tectonic unit of the Sonnebait Series.
Larger sea depths were prevalent during the deposition of the Mesozoic part of the Sonnebait Series. Cephalopod- limestones are found from the Lower- to the Upper Triassic and in the Lias. Rocks containing Halobiidae have been found in the upper parts of the Triassic. Shales and cherts partly filled with Radiolaria are found associated with them. The main development of the Lias consists of cephalopod marls and clay shales and that of the Dogger of ferruginous clay shales with concretions of clay-iron stone. The facial and tectonic unit to which the latter rocks belong is still dubious.
Dense limestones, marls, cherts, and radiolarites are of widespread occurrence in the younger Mesozoic of the Sonnebait Series. Oxfordian Aucella-limestones and cretaceous Globotruncana-Iimestones with interstratified marls and cherts occur in this series. Globigerina-Iimestones and cherts with Radiolaria may partly be of cretaceous- and partly of older Mesozoic age.
The Sonnebait Series has a large extension in Netherlands Timor. It has been eroded away where the lower tectonic unit (Kekneno Series) is uncovered. South of the central basin, where detailed investigations were only locally made during the expedition of 1937, many rocks of WANNER'S zone of Niki Niki-Baun (1913, p. 141) belong to the Sonnebait Series. This may be true also for other rocks of which the facial and tectonic group to which they belong is still doubtful, like WANNER'S Ofu Series 8).
An interesting occurrence of red deep sea clay shale in this part of the island is considered to be of upper- cretaceous age (DE BEAUFORT, 1923). The clay shales contain remains of Radiolaria, numerous nodules of manganese, and a great number of fragments of teeth, for the greater part belonging to the family of the Lamnidae. The similarity with the recent red clays from the deep sea is very striking. Fatu Complex.
The Fatu Complex comprises limestones 4), mostly massive. They have a high tectonic position. Large detached blocks of Fatu limestones have been displaced far from their original source, forming now sometimes the highest part of their surroundings. Large block fields of Permian crinoid limestones of the Sonne bait Series are also found and therefore the distinction between the Permian of the Fatu complex and the Permian of the Sonne bait Series is sometimes dubious (compare stratigraphical tables in TAPPENBECK, 1939, SIMONS, 1939, DE ROEVER, 1940). Massive, unstratified, mostly white to light pink, coarsely crystalline limestones with trochites and brachiopods in NE Netherlands Timor are grouped with the Fatu Complex (SIMONS, 1939). Rocks of this type have not been encountered in the southwestern Mutis region where the crinoid limestones belong to the Permian of the Sonne bait Series (DE ROEVER, 1940, p. 15).
In the Mollo region, crinoid limestones and igneous rocks, which have been grouped with the Fatu Complex (TAPPENBECK, 1939, p. 100) seem to have - at least partly - the same position as similar rocks of the Sonne bait Series in the neighbouring southeastern Mutis region. The conglomeratic Permian rocks in the Mollo region, which have been grouped with the Fatu Complex (TAPPENBECK, 1939, p. 25) have been mentioned already with the rocks of the Sonne bait Series.
The Triassic of the Fatu Complex is represented by masses of mostly light coloured, often oolitic limestones, which mainly are coral reefs of upper-Triassic age. Locally these limestones show a southeastern trend. In the Mutis region the small pebbles belong to porphyritic sanidine trachites. Stratified limestones are also found in the Triassic, as well as in the Lias. In stratified Triassic limestones of the Miomaffo region rounded fragments of eruptive material and many clastic albite crystals have been found. The eruptive material seems to be mostly derived from xsocratic albite-rich igneous rocks. Sheets of diabase, which have been found in Fatu limestones of upper Triasic age (BROUWER, 1918 d, p. 150-151) show that a of the eruptive rocks belongs to the Fatu Complex.
The Triassic rocks of the Fatu Complex often form picuous steep montains, which occur isolated or in groups and tower above the gentle slopes of the Sonnebait Series.•They are very numerous in the part of Netherlands Timor, North of the young central basin.
Palelo Series.
The Palelo Series is found in close relation with the crystalline schists of Netherlands Timor and both formations belong to the same stratigraphical column and the same tectonic unit. Two lithologically quite different parts of the series have been distinguished; the lower part is assumed to be much older than the upper part. The available results of the observations are at present explained best by assuming that the Upper Palelo Series disconformably overlies the Lower Palelo Series and the crystalline schists. Absence or scanty development of the lower part of the series may have a tectonic cause or may be caused by erosion before the deposition of the upper part.
The lower part of the series is of unknown age. It has its most complete development in the Miomaffo region and the succession of strata in this region has been compared by VAN WEST (1941, p. 24-25) with similar deposits in southern Celebes, SE-Borneo (Alino Formation), and Central and NW-Borneo (so-called "Danau Formation"). On the ground of these comparisons, which should only be used in a tentative way, a Permian age might be considered. A Triassic age might also be considered, the Permian rocks of which the age could be determined by fossil evidence being all deposits of shallow water depth 1). This lower part of the series in the Miomaffo region is mainly composed of radiolarian cherts, while in connection with them breccias, which are associated with igneous rocks (albite diabases) occur close to the contact with the crystalline schists. The fragments in the breccias are derived from quartz keratophyres, keratophyres, quartz- amphibole albitites, albitite diabases, and spilitic rocks. The contacts of the Lower Palelo Series with the underlying crystalline schists and the overlying upper part of the series are usually characterized by a crushed zone of several metres. In the Mollo region, the lower part of the series seems to have a scanty development.
The upper part of the Palelo Series has a much larger extension. Its age is partly fixed by the presence of the Globotruncana fauna, which points to an upper-cretaceous age of the parts in which this fauna occurs. In the Mollo region numerous (probably oxfordian) inocerams indicate an upper-Jurassic age for a certain part of the series. At some places the series seems to continue into the Eocene (TAPPENBECK, 1939, p. 49; VAN WEST, 1941, p. 33). The rocks are mainly graywackes, graywacke sandstones, tuffs, marls, shales and conglomerates, all containing volcanic material in varying quantities. Intercalated lava flows are found abundantly in the Mollo region. The conglomerates are for the greater part composed of schist fragments and, as far as the conglomerates have been studied in detail (TAPPENBECK, 1938, p. 33-34), the fragments of other rocks can safely be assumed to be derived from lower parts of the Palelo Series 2). The analysis of these conglomerates shows that rock series, which now occur in the neighbourhood, were not exposed in the region where the Palelo Series was deposited."
Portuguese Timor (See fig. 24 on plate 3 for the location of the geographical names).
The Allied Mining Corporation, technical managers of the Asia Investment Company Ltd of Hongkong, organized in 1936 an expedition to Portuguese Timor with a staff of seventeen European and ten Philippino graduates, to make a geological and topographical survey of that area. The geologists of this expedition were: W. L. CARBONNEL, N. H. VAN DOORNINCK and H. C. MORRISON; the mining-engineers were J. H. ABBOT, H. B. PARFET, B. SCHELECHOFF and R. G. TREADAWAY. The geological results of this survey appeared as Part II of the general report on this expedition (Allied Mining Corp., 1937).
This survey has considerably advanced our geological knowledge of the Portuguese part of the island, of which very little was previously known (HIRSCHI, 1907; WANNER, 1907 c).
Hereunder some stratigraphical information will be quoted from the A.M.C. report (1937). A further discussion will be given in Chapter V.
Stratigraphy and petrography.
"North Coast Schists. The characteristics of the North Coast Schists vary greatly in different localities and even within small areas. The greatest extent of these schists are in the NW area (Dilly, N-Suro, NW-Manatuto). The schists are mostly amphibolitic varieties, although mica-, quartz-, and chlorite types are also found. Most of the material shows a very prominent schistose structure. Small lenses and stringers of secondary quartz occur, some parallel and others at an angle to the planes of schistocity. The age of this formation is not definitely known, but from what information is available it has been termed Pre-Permian.
Igneous rocks outcrop among the schists in many places, especially along the North coast. Fresh specimen, gathered from a quarry near Dilly, show a coarse grained rock, made up chiefly of ferromagnesian minerals, with no visible quartz. The rock has been slightly metamorphosed, but is evidently of gabbroic character.
Manufai Diabase.
Lying on top of the above mentioned formations, in many places either in fault-contact or with very indistinct contacts, is a meta-igneous rock. The age relationship between these two formations is not entirely clear, although it is evident that, in some localities, the meta-igneous rock is younger. The name "Manufai Diabase" has been given to this formation as many large masses are well exposed in the district of that name in Suro.
Exposures of this rock indicate that it originally contained many of the different rock types originally found in an igneous mass. Metamorphism has caused the formation of schists, serpentines and various transitional types.
The rock occurs as:
(a) Original igneous mass: unorientated mineral components. Grades from medium grained doleritic to dense aphanitic rock.
(b) Metamorphosed: not schistose, generally showing effect of considerable pressure, some partial serpentinization.
(c) Transitional: slightly schistose type, greyish or green in colour.
(d) Schists: Amphibole schists with a little quartz, some of greyish green colour; lustrous planes of schistosity, rather often distinctly chloritic.
(e) Dyke materials: even and medium sized grains of white feldspar, hornblende and biotite.
(f) Porphyritic: this type is rare, but occurs at Marobo, with phenocrysts of plagioclase in a very fine grained mass, calcite filling in cavities.
(g) Doleritic float: containing feldspar, hornblende and pyrite, shows chloritization.
The oldest sedimentary rocks observed are of two types. The first consists entirely of coarse crystalline fossil lime, in beds 30 to 60 em thick. The formation is very resistant to erosion, forming small peaks and huge benches. Many of the limestone peaks of Fatu type are made of this formation. The total thickness is about 300 m in the areas of Tilomar, Mindelo, and Foho Luli, but the formation is not usually as thick as this. The beds are often steeply tilted, following the slopes of the underlying igneous rocks. Most of the limestones are built up entirely of crinoid stem members, other fossils being embedded in these.
These second type consists of fossiliferous red calcareous shale, the shales alternating with beds of the first type 1).
The relationship between this formation and the younger Mesozoic formations is not clear 2).
The formation is very prolific in fossils in Fronteira, particularly well preserved fossils being found in the shales.
The fossils found in this formation include crinoids, Feneste/la, Product us, Rhynchone/la, Acanthocladia, Zaphrentis and many primitive forms of ammonites. Although no determination was made of the species, the collection is strongly suggestive of the Permian."
Mesozoic in Portuguese Timor.
The dominating rocks are shales and sandstones in a flysch-facies, which can probably be correlated with the Triassic flysch of the Netherlands part of Timor. But no Triassic fossils have been found in Portuguese Timor. Basic eruptive rocks occur, similar to those found in association with the upper-paleozoic rocks. In the flysch facies no basic rocks occur, but they are found clearly intrusive into the (Triassic)
flysch, in which case they are obviously younger. Jurassic has not been determined by fossil evidence. Cretaceous has a rather wide distribution, occurring as shales and limestones with Globotruncana.
According to an information from the "Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij" (B.P.M.), the Triassic does not occur in the Fatu-facies in eastern Timor. Massive limestones which have the appearance of Fatu-limestones, are of Upper-Cretaceous age and part of them might even belong to the Tertiary "e", according to the smaller Foraminifera. It depends on the range of the concerning smaller Foraminifera whether these limestones are to be considered as T.e or older.
The data on the pre-tertiary stratigraphy of Portuguese Timor are too scant to allow a strict correlation with the units distinguished in the Netherlands portion of the island.

ZWIERZYCKI (1928, p. 266), says that the Triassic has not been stated in New Guinea, but that it may be present in the series of geosynclinal deposits of the Snow Mountain Range.
On the other hand, the Jurassic and Cretaceous have a wide distribution.
The Jurassic occurs in the clay-shale facies with geodes, like we have met already in the Sula Islands and Obi. It can be compared with the Spiti shales of India. In this facies occur the Bajocian, Callovian, Oxfordian, and the transitional layers of the J urasso-Cretaceous.
From the southern slope of the Snow Mountains the following rock types with Jurassic fossils are known: Phyllitic slates with Coeloceras moermani KRUIZ.; black limestone with ? Coeloceras and canaliculate Belemnites; finegrained sandstone with ? Macrocephalites, Belemnites, and Inoceramus; siliceous shale with ? Quenstedticeras and Inoceramus.
STANLEY (1924), mentions from the Strickland River in Papua (about 7° Southern lat.) Upper Oolites with Stephanoceras blagdeni, St. lamellosum, Ammonites lingulatus, Macrocephalites and Erymnoceras.
In the October River (Mandated Territory) fragments of pyritous shale were picked up, containing a Mesozoic fauna, Belemnites, Inoceramus, Macrocephalites and Phylloceras have been reported, which are stated to correspond with the Jurassic strata of the Moluccas (STANLEY, 1923, p. 31).
The Lower Cretaceous occurs also in the clay-shale facies with geodes. In the Vogelkop a fragment of Hoplites has been found.
The Upper Cretaceous probably follows conformly upon the Jurassic-Cretaceous and contains a una of typical upper-cretaceous genera of Forammifera.
It is represented at the junction of the Fly- and Palmer Rivers in Papua, where it consists of cherts ntaining Actinaris sumatraensis (STANLEY, 1924, p. 25). ERNI (1944), described a cenomanian ammonite, Cunningtoniceras holkten n. sp., from the Wahgi Valley in the Mandated Territory.
In the Port Moresby area, a typical geosynclinal series is found, characterized by the serpentine- chert association. It contains upper-cretaceous Foraminifera and seems to pass without a break into the Lower Tertiary. More inland isolated outcrops occur of typical "Couches Rouges" with Globotruncana.
VAN THIEL wrote a report for the "Nederlandsche Nieuw Guinea Petroleum Maatschappij", dated September 1940, in which the results have been summarized of the geological reconnaissances in the concession during the period 1934-1940. From this report the following paragraphs on the Mesozoic stratigraphy are quoted with the permission of this company: .
"The three divisions of the Mesozoic in common use are:
Upper Cretaceous
Middle and Lower Mesozoic

Middle and Lower Mesozoic
Middle and lower Mesozoic rocks occur widely in the Mimika and Otakwa-Akimeugah areas, where they are conformable beneath the Jurasso-Cretaceous. They are composed of conglomerates, quartzites, sandstones, clays, sandy clays and sandy slates. The middle Tuaba Formation of the Mimika area is calcareous. Some of the sandy marls and sandy limestones of the higher part of this formation are rich in fossils, but unfortunately they are too poorly preserved for identification.
In the Muturi area the thinly laminated tuffaceous shales of the Basal Series, exposed on the Island of Rumberpon, are considered to belong to the Middle and Lower Mesozoic. They are unconformably overlain by the well developed Jurasso-Cretaceous of that area.
Along the northern coast of New Guinea the oldest rocks are rather highly metamorphosed. They are the Black Phyllite-Quartzite Series of Manokwari, the Korido Schists of Biak and Supiori, the Rosburi Schists of the Island of Japen and the crystalline schists of the Warenai area. The oldest rocks of proven age in the Warenai area are Jurasso-Cretaceous, but their field relations with the crystalline rocks could not be established. The highly metamorphosed rocks mentioned above may be either Lower and Middle Mesozoic or Paleozoic in age.
Jurasso-Cretaceous rocks were first distinguished in the Muturi area, and they have been found in scattered exposures over most of the concession.
Typically, they consist of clay shales, mudstones, slates, sandy shales, sandstones, and quartzites. Sometimes they are calcareous, and even sandy limestones have been recorded. In the Vogelkop the Jurasso-cretaceous rocks are dark in colour.
Along the northern coast of New Guinea igneous rocks appear to be important. The Auwewa Series of the Warenai area, considered to be of Jurasso-cretaceous age, is a sedimentary series of shales, siliceous slates, and conglomeratic sandstones, containing many porphyries, porphyrites, diabases and volcanic breccias. These are concentrated in the lower part of the series. They do not penetrate the overlying Diewewa conglomerates of supposed cretaceous age. Further, pebbles of porphyritic igneous rocks are common in these conglomerates, thus fixing the age of the igneous activity as Jurasso-Cretaceous.
The Prafi Series of Manokwari with its andesitic tuffs and basalts, and the Tuff-basalt Series of Biak and Supiori were placed by the geologists of the reconnaissance surveys in the Lower Tertiary. In view of the igneous activity found in the Jurasso-Cretaceous of the Warenai area, the Prafi Series and the Tuff-basalt Series have now been provisionally included in that formation.
The micro-fauna of the Jurasso-cretaceous rocks is poor but rather distinctive. It consists principally of arenaceous forms. Belemnites and Ammonites have been found in the Muturi area, and fragments of small Ammonites and Pentacrinus in the Akimeugah area.
Upper Cretaceous.
Upper-cretaceous rocks are known from many areas of the Vogelkop, Bombarai, and the South coast. They appear to lie conformably on the Jurasso-Cretaceous in most localities. Their principal components are clays, shales and sandy clays, all sometimes calcareous, argillaceous limestones, massive limestones, sandstones and calcareous sandstones.
Many upper-cretaceous samples, in particular the calcareous clays, contain a rich micro-fauna. Their age is well established by frequent occurrence of several typical upper-cretaceous Foraminifera. The more common of these are: Bolivinoides, Eouvigerina, Globotruncana, Guembelina, Planoglobulina, Pseudotextularia, and Rzehakina. In the Upper Cretaceous of the Sebjar area, Belemnites and Inoceramus were discovered.
The Diewewa conglomerates of the Warenai-Waipoga area on the North coast are believed to be of upper- cretaceous age. There is slight paleontological evidence that they belong to the Mesozoic and they are unconformably on the Auwewa Series. The top beds of the latter contain Globigerina and so cannot be older than Cretaceous. No other upper-cretaceous rocks are known from the northern coast of New Guinea."
It appears from this information that part of the rocks which have been assigned to the crystalline schists by previous authors (ZWIERZYCKY, 1928, 1932) are placed in the Lower- and Middle Mesozoic by the geologists of the N.N.G.P.M.
In Rumberpon (Geelvink Bay) an unconformity occurs between this problematical Lower, and Middle Mesozoic and well developed Jurasso- Cretaceous.
In the North-coast belt another unconformity occurs between the Jurasso-cretaceous Auwewa Series and the upper-cretaceous Diewewa conglomerates. However, elsewhere the Jurasso-cretaceous sediments are conformably succeeded by the upper- cretaceous deposits.
Moreover, the Lower- and Middle Mesozoic as well as the Jurasso-Cretaceous around the Geelvink Bay appear to have a volcanic facies, which has as yet not been recorded in the zone of the Central Ranges.

The Lower Tertiary of the Indian Archipelago is generally separated from the Pre-Tertiary by a sharp unconformity. In localities where later diastrophism caused intensive dynamo-metamorphism the distinction between the Lower Tertiary and the Pre- Tertiary may be difficult to distinguish. For instance, in the Embaluh complex of NW-Borneo, TER BRUGGEN (1935) found Eocene in phyllitic facies, and this author supposes that also the Kaal Formation in the Philippines is partly of paleogene age. But in NW-Borneo an unconformity between the Pre-Tertiary and the Lower Tertiary is quite probable.
Similar conditions are encountered in the Tinombo Formation of NW-Celebes.
In the East arm of Celebes, HOPPER (N.P.P.M. report May 23, 1941) found only a disconformity between the Eocene and the Cretaceous. The same may be true for the East arm of Halmaheira, where the Cretaceous and Eocene rocks are in some instances very similar in lithological appearance, according to BROUWER" (1923 a).
In Ceram there occurs the only sequence where the Cretaceous is overlain by the Eocene defintely without a stratigraphic break. GERMERAAD (1946, p. 29), discussing Central Ceram, writes in this connection:
"For so far red limestones, marls and shales also occur in the Eogene, the red Upper-Cretaceous probably passes imperceptibly into the red Eogene, characterized by the occurrence of very big Globigerina, which seem to be Globigerina eoeaena GUEMBEL. This red Eogene in its turn passes imperceptibly via multi-coloured Eogene into green-yellow-gray marls and shales, also characterized by Globigerina eoeaena GUEMBEL, some Hantkenina (with tangentially placed peripheral spines, therefore Middle- or Yeung-Eocene according to M.REY, Bull. Soc. Geol. France, 5, 8, 1938, pp. 321-340) and Guembelina; besides small Globigerina (probably not G. erefaeea) together with big forms. It seems very probable, that all these gray marls and shales may be regarded as Eocene. From the field-annotations and the samples we get the impression, that we have to do with a continuous sedimentation of Upper-Cretaceous up to and including Eocene. It may be that a part of the red limestones, marls, and shales belong to the transitional layers, which sometimes also contain big Globigerina."
Besides this Eocene in a bathyal facies, which lies with a gradational contact upon the bathyal Upper-Cretaceous, also Eocene in a littoral fades occurs in Central Ceram. Whereas the former facies is dynamo-metamorphic by orogenesis, the latter is not altered. In West Ceram also a gradational transition of the Cretaceous into the Lower Tertiary seems to occur (the red or variegated sandy Globigerina- marls, which resemble the "Couches Rouges" of the European Alps). A boulder of (upper?) eocene conglomerate with (?) Discocyclina was found (VALK, 1945, p. 16-17) which represents the Eocene in littoral facies.
In East Ceram, VAN DER SLUIS (1947) mentions two hard marls in the inlier of Nief. The first contains a fauna of small Foraminifera with 25 species, a number of which occur elsewhere in the Eocene, whilst other are known from the Oligocene. The age is possibly Upper Eocene. The second contains 14 species of small Foraminifera, a part of which is known from the Eocene; the occurrence of Lenticulina velascoensis, Globorotalia aragonensis and Bolivinoides sp. points to a transition between Cretaceous and Tertiary. These marls are probably conformably underlain by Globotruncana-limestones.
For two regions, viz. in the SW part of Central Celebes and in J amdena, the literature mentions an apparently conformable sequence of cretaceous and eocene formations.
In the SW part of Central Celebes, the regional metamorphic pre-tertiary rocks, exposed in the core of the LatimodjongRange, are overlain at the flanks by the "Maroro Formation". The latter is some thousands of metres thick, consisting of violet, red and grey shales, often globigerina-bearing and sometimes with pyrite and chalcopyrite impregnations. On account of these chalcopyrites the formation has also been called (somewhat misleadingly) the "Coppershale Formation" by DE KONING KNIJFF (1914) and REYZER (1920).
The formation contains intercalations of sandstone, calcareous sandstone and limestone. The limestone contains in the lower horizons Camerina, Assilina, Alveolina s.str., and Discocyclina, thus typical eocene fossils; a higher horizon of the section, containing Heterostegina, Cycloc/ypeus and Amphistegina, was dated as Aquitanian by DOLLFUS (1917) without coercive paleontological reason.
ABENDANON (1915/1918) accepted a young cretaceous age for the Maroro Formation, without adequate paleontological grounds, which passes conformably into the Eocene, whilst the above mentioned eocene limestones are separated from the other sediments by faults. The latter opinion was energetically impugned by REYZER; but this author still maintained a cretaceous age for the deeper parts of the Maroro Formation on account of an imprint of an ammonite found in a black shale of the "volcanic formation", which is held by him (at least partly) for the equivalent of the Maroro Series. REYZER is even of the opinion that the conformable sequence ends in the Pliocene.
BROUWER and HETZEL found in this Maroro Formation intercalations of harder phyllitic shales, radiolarian cherts and breccious limestones. The letter contain Orbitolina and Astrarea cf. eolumel/ata OPPENH, which points to Upper Cretaceous.
RUTTEN (1927, p. 621-623) pointed out that the supposed conformity between the Cretaceous and the Eocene is yet by no means proved, and the stratigraphical, facies- and tectonical relations of rocks in this region are still to be proved. See further table 98 in Chapter V.
Jamdena (Tanimber Islands).
Fr. WEBER provided some new informations on the Eocene of this island which were published by UMBGROVE (1934, p. 27-29). In the NW part of the island some littoral deposits occur, containing detritus of Mesozoic rocks, and eocene key-fossils (small Camerinae, Assilina, Alveolina, Discocyclina, Lacazinat. These sediments are closely related with cretaceous Globigerina-rocks. BADINGS 1936, p. 281) called the position of the eocene deposits upon the Cretaceous "probably pseudoconformable", mentioning WEBER as the source of this opinion. But WEBER speaks only of an "apparent conformity", so that possibly an unconformable or disconformable position was oeant by the latter.
The unconformity or disconformity at the base of the Tertiary, when the sea transgressed over the pre-tertiary land, has been found in numerous places all over the Indian Archipelago. Moreover, the Lower Tertiary has almost exclusively a littoral or neritic facies. At the beginning of the Tertiary a vast land mass extended in the area of the Indian Archipelago, forming a land bridge between the Asiatic and the Australian Continent. Only in Central Ceram, and perhaps in some other areas between the Sunda Land and the Sahul Land, marine conditions have persisted from the Cretaceous into lower-tertiary time.

1) WANNER compares one of his forms with "Monotis salinaria" from Borneo, described by VOGEL (Samml. des Geol. Reichs-Museurns in Leiden, 1904, 1, 7, p. 218). But VOGEL adds a characteristic feature to the original description of BRONN, thus indicating that this species from Borneo is at most a variety of the original Monotis salinaria BR. t) The Volumes I-IV are edited in 1940-42 by the Geol. Expedition to the Lesser Sunda Islands under the leadership of H. A. BROUWER. The above mentioned papers appeared partly separately as doctoral theses at the University of Amsterdam, being later on united to these four volumes.


B.1.1. 'Crystalline Basement'

Crystalline schists is a general term used by R. W. van Bemmelen (1949) which include other lithologies such as gneiss, phylite, slate and marble (Sartono, 1979). This unit is widely distributed in the Indonesian Archipelago, but there is much diversity of opinion as to their age. The crystalline schists certainly do not belong to a distinct geological epoch, neither are they of an archaic age as has been supposed by many earlier authors. Sedimentary deposits of various ages can be altered into crystalline schists by regional metamorphism, aided by contingent processes of diffusion of constituents. Often a succession of alterations can be distinguished under the microscope, giving them a polymetamorphic appearance and enabling us to distinguish between several types of schists (viz. crystalline schists and phyllites) (edited from van Bemmelen, 1970).

In some areas the transition of fossil-bearing strata made possible a direct age determination, while in other areas only the upper limit is fixed by the age of the first transgressive formation. There are also indications of different metamorphic processes / polymetamorphism.

Hereunder some instances are mentioned:

The crystalline schists in South Sumatra (Geological Maps of South Sumatra Nos. I, 2, 4 and 5, scale I : 200,000) and North Sumatra (VAN BEMMELEN, 1932 d) are presumably parts of an old basement complex of pre-mesozoic age. Mesozoic sediments of Sumatra in many localities show a phyllitic facies. In the Islands West of Sumatra exposures of schistose pre-tertiary rocks are known. TERPSTRA (1932) mentions phyllites and amphibolites.from Sipura, and at the West coast of Nias crystalline schists crop out at the base of the Paleogene near Sumasuma.

The schistose and phylitic formations of the smaller islands on the Sunda Shelf are generally of young paleozoic and upper triassic age (VAN BEMMELEN, 1940 d). Crystalline schists of West and Central Borneo are known as Schwaner Block, named after Carl Schwaner. This block is older than Upper Triassic (ZEYLMANS VAN EMMICHOVEN, 1939, p. 21) and partly also older than the Permo-Carboniferous (ZEYLMANS v. E., 1939, pp. 56-58); but also younger formations may have a schistose facies, e.g. the Eocene has obtained in some belts a phyllitic character (TER BRUGGEN, 1935). ZEYLMANS VAN EMMICHOVEN published in 1940 a study, in which he described the schists and gneisses of the Schwaner Mts in Central Borneo, which are considered to be older than the Permo-Carboniferous. The crystalline schists of the Meratus Mountains in SE- Borneo are older than the Alino Formation (? Jurassic acc. to KOOLHOVEN, 1935) which contains detrital matter of the schists.

The polymetamorphic crystalline schists of Sulawesi are older than the Mesozoic or Young Paleozoic (BROUWER, 1941, p. 257-258), but there are also phyllites of mesozoic and eocene age (Tinombo Formation, ? Pompangeo Formation, Maroro Formation). In VAN BEMMELEN, 1949, contributions to the petrology of the crystalline schists of central Sulawesi were made by WILLEMS (1937), EGELER (1946, 1948) and DE ROEVER (1947). In Southeast Celebes and Buton BOTHE (1927) distinguishes a metamorphic (phyllitic) facies of the Mesozoic (Kendari facies) from a less or non-metamorphic facies (Buton facies). In the Northern Moluccas, isolated outcrops of crystalline schists are found on Obi (BROUWER, 1924a, p. 47) and on Bacan (Sibella Mts), which might be metamorphic paleozoic rocks, while in the Sula Islands (BROUWER, 1921 b, 1926) their age could be fixed as pre-Liassic.

Banda Arc
In the outer arc of the Southern Moluccas, crystalline schists are widely exposed. In Seram distinction can be made between phyllites which are pre-upper triassic (presumably Young Paleozoic) and older polymetamorphic crystalline schists (VALK, 1945 and, GERMERAAD, 1946). In Leti, transition from epimetamorphic schists to phyllitic rocks with intercalations of permian crinoidal limestones are found (MOLENGRAAFF, 1915). In Timor, crystalline schists occur in an overthrust complex of rocks, associated with ophiolites. These schists are at least pre-young Mesozoic, and partly pre-Permian (BROUWER, 1942 b, p. 364).

In Java, crystalline schists have been found in the Loh Ulo region where they are partly cretaceous and partly older (HARLOFF, 1929, 1933), and in the Ciletuh area, where their age is uncertain (at least pre-Eocene).

In New Guinea and the islands off its North coast, crystalline schists and phyllites are found in the pre-tertiary basement complex, but there is little information on their composition and age (The oldest fossil-bearing strata of the Central Mountains are Silurian).

In the Philippines, no old crystalline schists are definitively known, the oldest formation being, presumably, young Mesozoic (Baruyen cherts and shales).

The oldest pre-young paleozoic and presumably more or less autochthonous outcrops of crystalline schists are found in the central Sunda Land (West and Central Borneo and Lampung Districts of South Sumatra). The crystalline schists in the circum-Sunda Mountain System forms parts of over-thrust complexes and are partly pre-young Paleozoic, partly Young Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and even Eocene. The petrography and facies of these various schists formations will be discussed in the chapter on the regional geology.

B.1.2. Silurian
Hallysites wallichi REED is the oldest of the fossils found to date in the Indian Archipelago (VAN BEMMELEN, 1949). It occurs in limestone boulders in the Snow Mountain Range of New Guinea and has been described by TEICHERT (1928) and MUSPER (1938). This fossil points to Upper Silurian and it represents the oldest fossil-bearing strata in the circum-Australian Mountain System.

B.1.3. Devonian
The oldest fossil-bearing strata of the Sunda area (i.e. the Asiatic part of the archipelago) have a lower-Devonian age. This has been stated by M. G. RUTTEN (1940, 1947), who found Clathrodiction d. spatiosum BOEHNKE and Heliolites porosus OLDFUSS in the "Danau Formation" of East Central Borneo (Telen area). SUGIAMAN and ANDRIA (1998) have revisited and analyzed the fossils from this area. This map shows a sketch of the location map of their mapping project.

In the Central Ranges of Papua the Silurian is succeeded by Devonian strata. The Devonian fossils have been described by MARTIN (1911), FEUILLETAU DE BRUYN (1921), STEHN (1927), and TEICHERT (1928) in the upper part of the Modio Limestone Formation. The result of reset age of zircon fission-track (ZFT) showing age of 650±63 Ma (Quarles van Ufford, 1996). OLIVER et al, 1995 found Late Devonian (Frtasnian) corals in the Modio Limestone.

The Modio Formation is interpreted as a transgressive sequence deposited from tidal to marine shelf. The upper contact with Aiduna Formation is not well exposed and is interpreted to be disconformable (UFFORD, 1996).

B.1.4. Permo-Carboniferous
Much more is know about the distribution of permo-carboniferous rocks. Characteristic fossil faunas and floras have been found in several islands. It is not always possible to separate with certainty the Permian from the Carboniferous and, therefore, often the name "Permo-Carboniferous" is used in the literature. In the western part of the Archipelago (Malaysian Peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo), carboniferous, permo-carboniferous, and permian fossils have been found. VON L6czy (1934) and VON KUTASSY (1934) presume the presence of Young Paleozoic in the East arm of Celebes (Tokala Mts); but HETZEL (1935, p. 30) remarks that VON KUTASSY'S plate, illustrating the concerning fossils, is too indistinct to convince the reader of the correctness of the determinations. In the outer arc of the eastern part of the Sunda Mountain System, the islands of Timor, Savu, Roti, Leti, Luang, Babar are reknown for their rich permian fauna, especially the former. From the Snow Mountain Range of New Guinea, upper- carboniferous and permian fossils have been described. For a summary of the above mentioned occurrences we may refer to BROUWER (1931, pp. 553-563) and UMBGROVE (1935 a, pp. 125-128). The fossils come from neritic and littoral sediments. Most probably in young paleozoic time some islands or larger land areas lay scattered in a shallow sea, which submerged at that time the East Indian region. Only in the Permian of West Borneo there are indications (radiolarian cherts and ophiolites in MOLENGRAAFF'S Danau Formation), for the presence of a deep-sea trench. In the following paragraph are quoted some recent advances of our knowledge on the carboniferous flora in New Guinea and of the Permo-Carboniferous in West Borneo. For the Permian of Timor see under Mesozoic. For further information on the occurrences of young-paleozoic strata in Sumatra and Malaya, the reader is referred to the regional geological descriptions.


An important contribution to our knowledge of the distribution of the Glossopteris-flora was recently given by JONGMANS (1940, 1941).

The Glossopteris-flora of the Southern hemisphere is found between India and Australia (where it has been known for considerable time). A former report of its occurrence in British North Borneo proved to be erroneous,

The flora of the Carboniferous of the Northern hernisphere (Europe, Asia, North America) can be distinguished jnto two groups: the Eurameric Flora (North America, '~'urope, western Asia) and the Cathaysia Flora (China and Korea). The difference between these two does not develop before the younger Carboniferous. It does not exist up till Westphalian D, but becomes apparent in Westphalian E and especially in the "Rotliegendes". The Djambi Flora (Sumatra) corresponds with the Cathaysia group in many respects, but the European character of this Djambi Flora is more pronounced than that of the typical Cathaysia Flora because it belongs to Westphalian E thus being older than the typical development of the latter. Also in the Malay Peninsula and Borneo, floras with a European character are known. Mixtures of the Eurameric Flora with the Glossopteris Flora of the southern hemi- sphere have been found in North Africa, Brasil and Central Africa. Up till 1940 no mixing of the Cathaysia with the Glossopteris Flora. was known; but now this has been demonstrated by JONGMANS for material from the southern slope of the Snow Mountain Range of New Guinea. Here have been 'found, Vertebraria (a typical element of the Glossopteris Flora) and Pecopteris- and Taeniopteris species (belonging to the Cathaysia Flora); the age is probably Westphalian E due to the presence of some Euramerian elements. This proves that also the Cathaysia Flora existed on the southern side of the Tethys where it could mix with the Glossopteris Flora of the Gondwana Land. During the younger Carboniferous the western part of the Archipelago had land connections with East Asia (China) and the eastern part with Australia.

JONGMANs(1941) also described some recent finds of up per- carboniferous plants (Westphalian D-E) from Borneo.

KEYZER (1941), summarized our knowledge of the fossiliferous Paleozoic in the Snow Mountain Range of New Guinea as follows:

Permian: Gray marly sandstones with coral limestones containing: Lonsdaleia fliegeli (ZWIERZYCKI); limestone with? Productus (HUBRECHT); ? Bryozoa-limestones (TEI- CHERT).

Upper-Carboniferous: dark shales with a Cathaysia Flora (JONGMANS); dark limestones with Martinia sp., Subulites sp., etc.; coarse micaceous calcareous sandstone with Chonetes sp., Proetus sp. (TEICHERT). South of the Carstensz summits a complex of conglomeratic, sandy and clayey rocks with Brachiopoda (Dozy). Devonian.

Upper-Devonian: Brown, beige, and white sandstones with Spirifer (Ado/jia), Retzia sp., Wi/sonia sp., Goniophora sp., etc. (FEUILLETAU DE BRUYN, TEICHERT).

Middle- (and? Lower-) Devonian: Gray, fine calcareous limestones with Favosites reticulatus (DE BLv.), Fav. sp. GERTH 1927, Cystiphyllum sp., Cyathophyllum douvillei FRECH, and Brachiopoda; dark gray sandy limestones with Heliolithes barrandei PEN.; Favosites sp. GERTH 1927, and Cystiphyllum, Silurian.

Upper-Silurian: Green limestones with Hallysites wallichi REED (TEICHERT, MUSPER).

The thickness of these paleozoic deposits in the geosyncline of the Snow Mountain Range is prob- ably considerable. In the section of the southern slope of the Carstensz summits drawn by Dozy (1939), the paleozoic strata have a thickness of 1500 m, presumably only representing a part of the Young Paleozoic.

According to ZEYLMANS VAN EMMICHOVEN (1938, p. 37), the Permo-Carboniferous of West and Central Borneo occurs in a volcanic and a non- volcanic facies:

"The normal sedimentary facies is especially charac- terized by frequent occurrence of siliceous rocks (chert, siliceous slate, jasper and jasperoid), Non-silicified rocks are phyllites, slates, light coloured dense clay stones, marls and limestones. The cherts may have originated by a later intensive silicification of clay shales, which are locally coaly limestones and volcanic rocks. The original rocks of the Permo-Carboniferous were predominantly clays (locally with coal beds, elsewhere with many plant remains), fine granular clay-sandstones, and subordinate limestones. No primary siliceous rocks were deposited, as was assumed by MOLENGRAAFF (1900) for the Danau Formation, at least not in the greater part of this area (Sanggau and the adjacent part of Sarawak). Rather striking is the absence of coarser clastic sediments; only very sporadically detrital material of schists were encountered. The permo-carboniferous age is proved in various places by Fusulinidae, found by KREKELER (1932, 1933), determined by ZEYLMANS V. E. and confirmed by TAN SIN HOK, in limestones, marbles, jasperoids and combust- ible clay shales, silicified into cherts. Furthermore plants, determined by JONGMANS as quite probable Calamites, possibly from the group of leioderma, and Pecopteris from the group of arborescens. Only the latter fossil plant enables a more accurate determination of the age, namely youngest Upper Carboniferous. . The volcanic facies of the Permo-Carboniferous consists of basic effusiva and ejectamenta. They are nearly always intensively decomposed and altered 1). These rocks are completely identic to the igneous rocks of the Pulu Melaju Zone of MOLENGRAAFF'S Danau Formation. These volcanic complexes have in numerous places supplied their detritus to upper-triassic deposits, which proves their pre-upper- triassic age. Moreover, in some places, their transition into and association with the permo-carboniferous cherts is quite probable. Therefore, their permo-carboniferous age can hardly be doubted.

B.2. Paleozoic Faunas and Floras
According to J. T.. van Gorsel (2014), An Introduction to Paleozoic faunas and floras of Indonesia, Biostratigraphy of Southeast Asia - Part 3, Berita Sedimentologi #30.

Studies of Paleozoic and Mesozoic faunas and floras are not just of historic interest, but are essential for unraveling the early history of Indonesia. Such fossils are often the only tool for age control, which is fundamental to all regional geological studies, or provide a 'reality check' for radiometric and other age dating tools. They also provide local paleoenvironment and regional paleoclimate information, thus constraining depositional settings and paleolatitudinal position. This together with paleobiogeographic patterns of faunal/floral similarities between tectonic blocks or endemism further help constrain plate tectonic reconstructions.

Many of the genus and species names used in historic literature on Indonesian fossils are outdated. In this paper we still use some of these original names, but recognize that these may not be in agreement with the latest taxonomic concepts and classifications. It is, however, important to realize that correct taxonomy and consistent identifications are very important. Misidentifications and inconsistent taxonomy will lead to incorrect conclusions on biostratigraphic ages and paleobiogeographic patterns. Unfortunately, paleontological research on macrofossils of Indonesia has come to a virtual standstill, as it has worldwide, and the number of experts that are qualified to properly analyze pre-Cenozoic macrofaunas and floras of Indonesia is limited.

B.2.1. History and Data on Pre-Cenozoic Paleontology of Indonesia
A significant body of literature has been published on Pre-Cenozoic fossils from outcrops in the Indonesian region over the last ~150 years, in which thousands of species have been identified and described. However, relatively little modern work has been done and this work has never been properly summarized in a textbook on the paleontology of Indonesia. Many of these papers, books and monographs are from the colonial era, published in the early 1900's, and written mainly by German and Dutch academic paleontologists. As a result, much of this work may be hard to find and is poorly known today. Yet, much of this early descriptive paleontology work is still relevant today, and the purpose of this paper is to review some of this historic knowledge, and place in a modern geologic context.


Notable series of paleontological monographs include:

  • 'Beitrage zur Geologie von Niederlandisch Indien' edited initially by G. Boehm and later by J. Wanner (1913-1959);
  • 'Palaeontologie von Timor' series edited by J. Wanner (1914-1929). 30 monographs in 16 volumes;
  • 'Wetenschappelijke Mededeelingen Dienst Mijnbouw Nederlands Indie', 1-28 (1929-1940). Mainly paleontological contributions from Geological Survey, Bandung, paleontologists Van der Vlerk, Gerth, Umbgrove, Oostingh, Tan Sin Hok and Von Koenigswald.
  • 'Geology and Palaeontology of Southeast Asia', Tokyo University Press, 1-25 (1964-1984). A remarkable series edited by T. Kobayashi et al., documenting numerous paleontological studies by Japanese paleontologists in mainland Southeast Asia and Indonesia from the 1950's - 1980's.
  • CCOP Technical Publications. Contain paleontological papers on Paleozoic - Mesozoic paleontology of mainland SE Asia and western Indonesia by French group of Henri Fontaine and associates Beauvais, Tien and Vachard in the 1980's - 1990's.
  • More current paleontological papers, or geologic papers with significant pre-Cenozoic paleontological content, include those by Hasibuan, Kristan-Tollman, Martini, Grant-Mackie, Skwarko, Charlton and others (see Bibliography).
Comprehensive listings of all faunas and species known from Indonesia were published in 1931 in the Professor Martin Memorial volume (Escher et al. 1931). This volume also includes reviews of stratigraphy of the Paleozoic by Brouwer and the Mesozoic by Wanner. A more recent and more concise compilation of macrofossil species is by Skwarko and Yusuf (1982). Another useful and still remarkably accurate review of pre-Cenozoic faunas/floras distribution in Indonesia is in Umbgrove (1938).

Literature on Paleozoic - Mesozoic fossils has been captured in the 'Bibliography of the geology of Indonesia and surrounding areas' (online at or see the Biostratigraphy chapter from this, published as Berita Sedimentologi 29A). It lists >1400 titles of books and papers from Indonesia and SE Asia with data on Paleozoic - Mesozoic fossils. The discussions below and the annotated bibliography should facilitate access to this wealth of published research from the region. The tables in this series of papers focus on references on Indonesian fossils.


Escher, B.G., I.M. van der Vlerk, J.H.F. Umbgrove and P.H. Kuenen (eds.), 1931. De palaeontologie en stratigraphie van Nederlandsch Oost-Indie (K. Martin Memorial Volume), Leidsche Geologische Mededelingen. 5, 1, p. 1-648.
Fontaine, H. (ed.), 1990. Ten years of CCOP research on the Pre-Tertiary of East Asia. CCOP Techn. Publ. TP 20, 375p.
Fontaine, H. and S. Gafoer (eds.), 1989. The pre-Tertiary fossils of Sumatra and their environments. Comm. Co-ord. Joint Prosp. Mineral Res. Asian Offshore Areas (CCOP), Techn. Publ. TP 19, Bangkok, 356p.
Harsono Pringgoprawiro, D. Kadar and S.K. Skwarko, 1998. Foraminifera in Indonesian stratigraphy, Vol.3: Palaeozoic and Mesozoic foraminifera. Geol. Res. Dev. Centre, Bandung, p. 1-150.

Hasibuan, F., 2008. Pre-Tertiary biostratigraphy of Indonesia. In: Proc. Int. Symp. Geoscience resources and environments of Asian Terranes (GREAT 2008), 4th IGCP 516 and 5th APSEG, Bangkok, p. 323-325.

Hasibuan, F. and Purnamaningsih, 1998. Pre-Tertiary biostratigraphy of Indonesia. In: J.L. Rau (ed.) Proc. 34th Sess. Sess. Co-ord. Comm. Coastal Offshore Geosc. Programs E and SE Asia (CCOP), Taejon 1997, 2, Techn. Repts, p. 40-54.

Kobayashi, T., R. Toriyama and W. Hashimoto (eds.), 1984. Geology and Palaeontology of Southeast Asia, University of Tokyo Press, 25, 488p.

Skwarko, S.K. and G. Yusuf, 1982. Bibliography of the invertebrate macrofossils of Indonesia (with cross references). Geol. Res. Dev. Centre, Bandung, Spec. Publ. 3, p. 1-66.

Umbgrove, J.H.F., 1935. De Pretertiaire historie van den Indischen Archipel. Leidsche Geol. Meded. 7, p. 119-155.

Umbgrove, J.H.F., 1938. Geological history of the East Indies. AAPG Bull. 22, p. 1-70.

Van Gorsel, J.T., 2014. An introduction to Cenozoic macrofossils of Indonesia. Berita Sedimentologi 30, p. 63-76.

Van Gorsel, J.T., P. Lunt and R. Morley, 2014. Introduction to Cenozoic biostratigraphy of Indonesia- SE Asia. Berita Sedimentologi 29, p. 6-40.

In the Indonesian region Early Paleozoic fossiliferous rocks are known only from West Papua, south of the Central Range and on the Birds Head (but not in Papua New Guinea). Of significant interest, but unfortunately poorly documented and poorly understood, are reported occurrences of Devonian fossils in the accretionary system of North Borneo. An early review of Paleozoic stratigraphy is by Brouwer (1931)
Early Paleozoic fossiliferous platform sediments and faunas of SE Asia are best-known from outside Indonesia, particularly on the Sibumasu terrane (NW Malay Peninsula and Langkawi islands-Peninsular and NW Thailand-E Myanmar-Yunnan; but not from the eastern Malay Peninsula or Sumatra [see references in separate Bibliography]). Pre-Carboniferous rocks may therefore be expected in the southern extension of the Sibumasu block in Sumatra, but there is no fossil evidence for this yet (Fontaine and Gafoer 1989).
Late Paleozoic (Carboniferous-Permian) deposits in Indonesia are more widespread than Early Paleozoic rocks. They have been reported only from Sumatra, West Papua (South of the Central Range and the Birds Head) and Timor and adjacent islands (Figure 1). Blocks of Late Carboniferous - Early Permian fusulinid limestones are also known from both the NW Kalimantan - Sarawak border region and from NE Kalimantanbut these occurrences are probably in accretionary melange of younger age.


Most of the Paleozoic sediments of Indonesia are in marine facies, so most studies deal with marine macro- and microfossils. In the Paleozoic dominant groups are brachiopods, ammonoids, corals, stromatolites, crinoids, blastoids, graptolites and trilobites. Microfossils tend to be more significant than macrofossils for Paleozoic biostratigraphy, with conodonts, radiolaria and foraminifera as the most important groups:

1. Radiolaria: in deep marine Paleozoic - Mesozoic deposits radiolaria offer high resolution biostratigraphy. Belts of radiolarian-rich cherts and shales can be used to trace the locations of former ocean basins and distal continental margins;

2. Conodonts: key group for dating of Paleozoic - Triassic shallow marine limestones;

3. Benthic foraminifera: important in dating Late Paleozoic shallow marine limestone (incl. fusulinids). An illustrated listing of Paleozoic-Mesozoic foraminifera species from Indonesia was compiled by Harsono, Kadar and Skwarko (1998, vol. 3; limited edition);
Paleozoic vertebrate faunas are very rare in the SE Asia region, and represented only by Late Silurian - Devonian marine fish fossils in mainland SE Asia and in West Papua (Turner 1995).


Brouwer, H.A., 1931. Paleozoic In: B.G. Escher et al. (eds.) De palaeontologie en stratigraphie van Nederlandsch Oost-Indie, Leidsche Geol. Meded. 5 (K. Martin memorial volume), p. 552-566.


The oldest fossils described from Indonesian territory are from the Ordovician-Silurian of West Papua. Cambrian and Late Precambrian sediments are probably present in this as well, but no diagnostic fossils have yet been recovered. Studies of Paleozoic fossils from West Papua are few, probably partly because faunas are not abundant and partly because outcrops of Early Paleozoic are in areas with difficult physical and political access. Most of the fossils described are from float samples from rivers draining the southern slopes of the Central Range.

Ordovician fossils reported from West Papua include:

1. Conodonts from 'basement limestone' in oil exploration wells Noordwest 1 and Cross Catalina 1 in the Central Range, including Ordovician Serratognathus bilobatus (Nicoll 2006). These limestones are part of the extensive Middle Cambrian - Early Ordovician Goulburn Group of carbonate-dominated shelf sediments, which underlie most of the Arafura Sea and West Papua South of the Central Ranges (Zhen et al. 2012);

2. Llanvirnian graptolites from shale from the Heluk River in the eastern foothills of the Central Range (Fortey and Cocks, 1986; not described or illustrated);

3. Possible occurrences of Ordovician-age orthoconic nautiloids of the Orthoceras-group, described as Irianoceras antiquum by Kobayashi and Burton (1971), but this was deemed to be a junior synonym of Bactroceras latisiphonatum Glenister 1952 by Crick and Quarles van Ufford (1995). These nautiloids are from black shale nodules in river float within and south of the Central Range of West Papua (Figure 2). The problem is that (1) the nodules look very similar to those from Kembelangan Formation black shales, which yield common Middle-Late Jurassic ammonites, and (2) the fossils appear to have been collected in areas with nearby outcrops of Jurassic rocks, but no Paleozoic. These observations suggest a likely Jurassic age for these nautiloids, but this type of straight nautiloids is not known from post-Triassic rocks anywhere in the world. It is hard to decide whether these 'Ordovician' nautiloids represent (1) material from as yet unidentified outcrops of Ordovician shales in the Central Range; (2) an as yet undescribed nautiloid species of Jurassic age, or (3) reworked Ordovician fauna into Middle-Late Jurassic sediments.

4. Another occurrence of molds of possible Ordovician Orthoceras is in phyllitic shale (presumably Kemum Formation), just N of the mouth of the Wesan River in the NW part of the Birds Head (Kruizinga 1957).
  • Crick, R.E. and A.I. Quarles van Ufford, 1995. Late Ordovician (Caradoc-Ashgill) ellesmerocerid Bactroceras latisiphonatum of Irian Jaya and Australia. Alcheringa 19, 3, p. 235-241.
  • Fortey, R.A. and L.R.M. Cocks, 1986. Marginal faunal belts and their structural implications, with examples from the Lower Palaeozoic. J. Geol. Soc. London 143, p. 151-160.
  • Kobayashi, T. and C.K. Burton, 1971. Discovery of ellesmereoceroid cephalopods in Irian, New Guinea. Proc. Japanese Academy 47, 7, p. 625-630.
  • Martin, K., 1911. Palaeozoische, Mesozoische und Kaenozoische Sedimente aus dem sud-westlichen Neu-Guinea. Sammlung. Geol. Reichsmus. Leiden, ser. 1, 9, 1, E.J. Brill, p. 84-107.
Similar to the Ordovician, Silurian-age fossils are known only from West Papua:
1. Graptolites Monograptus turriculatus and M. marri from the highly-deformed deep water sediments of the Kemum Formation in the north-central Birds Head (Llandoverian; Visser and Hermes 1962);
2. Small trilobites and brachiopods from float samples in rivers draining the southern slopes of the Central Range (Martin, 1911), associated with Silurian conodonts (Ludlowian; Van den Boogaard 1990);
3. Conodonts from Modio Dolomite in Charles Louis Range, SW West Papua, with Panderodus cf. simplex, indicate a Silurian age (Nicoll and Bladon 1991);
3. Silurian cosmopolitan coral Halysites wallichi was also found in river float in a tributary of the Noordoost/Lorentz River (Musper, 1938; Figure 3);
4. Late Silurian (M Ludlow) thelodont and acanthodian fish scales from Lorenz River in eastern W Papua and Kemum Fm of north part of Birds Head (Turner et al. 1995).
  • Musper, K.A.F.R., 1938. Over het voorkomen van Halysites wallichi Reed op Nieuw Guinea. De Ingenieur in Nederl.-Indie (IV Mijnbouw en Geologie), 5, 10, p. 156-158.
  • Nicoll, R.S. and G.M. Bladon, 1991. Silurian and Late Carboniferous conodonts from the Charles Louis Range and central Birds Head, Irian Jaya, Indonesia. BMR J. Austral. Geol. Geoph. 12, 4, p. 279-286.
  • Turner, S., J.M.J. Vergoossen and G.C. Young, 1995. Fish microfossils from Irian Jaya. Mem. Assoc. Australasian Palaeont. 18, p. 165-178.
  • Van den Boogaard, M., 1990. A Ludlow conodont fauna from Irian Jaya (Indonesia). Scripta Geol. 92, p. 1-27.
  • Visser, W.A. and J.J. Hermes, 1962. Geological results of the exploration for oil in Netherlands New Guinea. Verh. Kon. Nederl. Geol. Mijnbouwk. Genootschap, Geol. Series 20, p. 1-265.
Devonian-age fossils are relatively widespread on mainland SE Asia (Malay Peninsula, NE Thailand, S China, Cambodia, Vietnam), and also along the Australia-New Guinea margins. All these regions were probably in low latitudes in Devonian time, favoring widespread carbonate development.  However, Devonian fossils are relatively rare in Indonesia, and are known only from West Papua and NE Kalimantan.
Devonian Corals
Middle or Late Devonian corals, including Heliolites and Favosites, and stromatoporoids, have been reported from the dark grey 'Modio Dolomite Formation', which outcrops south of the Central Range of West Papua (Gerth 1927, Keijzer 1941, Oliver et al. 1995).
These carbonates may be remnants of a widespread Middle Devonian reef system that continues for about 2000 km along the East Australia and New Guinea margin (Copper and Scotese 2003, Torsvik and Cocks 2013). Pebbles of M-U Devonian sandstones with the brachiopod genus Spirifer have been reported from the same region (Teichert, 1928).
In NE Kalimantan Devonian corals (Heliolites) and the stromatoporoid Clathrodictyon cf. spatiosum are present in limestone blocks in the 'Danau Formation' melange complex at the Telen River (Rutten 1940, 1947). Heliolites is a genus that is geographically widespread, also known from Indochina, NE Thailand, Laos, East Australia and Europe. Age of the melange complex has not been properly documented, but is likely Early Cretaceous (Tate 1992).
  • Copper, P. and C.R. Scotese, 2003. Megareefs in Middle Devonian supergreenhouse climates. Geol. Soc. America Spec. Paper 370, p. 209-230.
  • Gerth, H., 1927. Eine Favosites Kolonie aus dem Palaozoikum von Neu-Guinea. Leidsche Geol. Meded. 2, 3, p. 228-229.
  • Oliver, W.A., A.E.H. Peddler, R.E. Weiland and A. Quarles van Ufford, 1995. Middle Palaeozoic corals from the southern slope of the Central Ranges of Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Alcheringa 19, p. 1-15.
  • Rutten, M.G., 1940. On Devonian limestones with Clathrodictyon cf spatiosum and Heliolites porosus from Eastern Borneo. Proc. Kon. Nederl. Akad. Wet. 43, 8, p. 1061-1064.
  • Stehn, C.E., 1927. Devonische Fossilien von Hollandisch-Neu-Guinea. Wetensch. Meded. Dienst Mijnbouw Nederlandsch-Indie 5, p. 25-27.
  • Teichert, C., 1928. Nachweis Palaeozoischer Schichten von Sudwest Neu-Guinea. Nova Guinea 6, 3, p. 71-92.



Carboniferous deposits are relatively rare in Indonesia, and are limited to North Sumatra, West-Central Sumatra, West Papua and possibly also NW Kalimantan. In the late 1800's most of the Permian limestones from Sumatra and Timor were erroneously assigned to the Carboniferous (equivalent of 'Kohlenkalk' of NW Europe).



Early Carboniferous sediments are the oldest sediments identified in Sumatra and may be from two different tectonic blocks (Fontaine and Gafoer, 1989, Barber et al. 2005):

- temperate late Visean Alas Fm limestones in North Sumatra. These are probably part of the Sibumasu Terrane, which at this time was still part of Australian margin. With conodonts (Metcalfe 1983)

- shallower marine and warmer-climate Kuantan Fm limestone with corals (Syringopora, Siphonodendron), calcareous algae (Koninckopora) and cosmopolitan foraminiferal assemblages from West Sumatra (Agam River, NE of Padang; Fontaine and Gafoer, 1989, Kato et al. 1999). This is part of the West Sumatra Block, with affinities more similar to the low-latitude Indochina Block.


The un-fossiliferous, glacial pebbly mudstones of the Bohorok Formation of West and North Sumatra are probably of Late Carboniferous - earliest Permian age, but fossils are lacking.


NW Kalimantan - West Sarawak

In NW Borneo, in the border area between West Sarawak and NW Kalimantan, the oldest fossil-bearing rocks are tightly folded, steeply dipping sediments with chert and grey limestones of the Terbat Formation. These contain diverse latest Carboniferous and earliest Permian fusulinid assemblages with Pseudoschwagerina, Paraschwagerina, etc. (Krekeler 1932, 1933, Cummings 1962, Sanderson 1966, Vachard 1990, etc.). Correlative deposits are present in NW Kalimantan (Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, 1939). The fusulinid assemblages suggest affinity with low latitude Cathaysian regions, not with Sibumasu terrains.


West Papua

Conodonts from the Aimau Fm in the SW Tamrau Mountains of the Birds Head contain conodonts typical of Late Carboniferous (Hindeodus minutus, Neognathus; Nicoll and Bladon 1991).



Fontaine, H. and S. Gafoer, 1989. The Carboniferous. In: H. Fontaine and S. Gafoer (eds.) The Pre-Tertiary fossils of Sumatra and their environments, CCOP Techn. Publ. TP 19, Bangkok, p. 19-29.

Metcalfe, I., 1983. Conodont faunas, age and correlation of the Alas Formation (Carboniferous), Sumatra. Geol. Mag. 120, 6, p. 737-746.

Nicoll, R.S. and G.M. Bladon, 1991. Silurian and Late Carboniferous conodonts from the Charles Louis Range and central Birds Head, Irian Jaya, Indonesia. BMR J. Austral. Geol. Geoph. 12, 4, p. 279-286.

Sanderson, G.A., 1966. Presence of Carboniferous in West Sarawak. AAPG Bull. 50, 3, p. 578-580.

Vachard, D., 1990. A new biozonation of the limestones from Terbat area, Sarawak, Malaysia. In: H. Fontaine (ed.) Ten years of CCOP research on the Pre-Tertiary of East Asia, CCOP Techn. Bull. 20, p. 183-208.





Rich Permian faunas and floras are known from many localities in SE Asia-Indonesia-West Papua. For reviews of the shallow marine and non-marine Permian faunas and floras of SE Asia see Fontaine (1986, 2002). A comprehensive review of Permian marine faunas of Timor is by Charlton et al. (2002). For biostratigraphic correlations of marine sequences brachiopods and mollusks have been the main tool in the Gondwana realm, while fusulinid foraminifera are the principal group used for correlation along the Tethyan margin.
In Indonesia Permian faunas and floras are common on Timor, West-Central Sumatra and West Papua (not including Papua New Guinea) and, to a lesser degree, from Borneo. The Permian faunas from Timor are famous for yielding the richest marine Permian faunas in the world (Figure 4), with over 600 species described by 1926 (Wanner 1926). Most of the Permian fossiliferous sediments on Timor are not in any stratigraphic order, but occurs as isolated blocks in melange, olistostrome or broken formations. It is generally accepted that material from the famous fossil localities of Somohole and Bitauni areas are older (E Permian, ~Sakmarian- Artinskian) than those from the Basleo and Amarassi areas (late Middle Permian, ~Capitanian).
Interpretation of Permian fossils and stratigraphy in SE Asia is made difficult by the lack of a globally accepted time scale. Different authors used different sets of stage names, the names of which originated from the traditional centers of Permian studies in the USA, Russia, China or Western Europe.  The subdivision most used today is that sanctioned by the International Commission on Stratigraphy.
Charlton, T.R., A.J. Barber, R.A. Harris, S.T. Barkham et al., 2002. The Permian of Timor: stratigraphy, palaeontology and palaeogeography. J. Asian Earth Sci. 20, p. 719-774.
Fontaine, H., 1986. The Permian of Southeast Asia. CCOP Techn. Bull. 18, p. 1-111.
Fontaine, H., 2002. Permian of Southeast Asia: an overview. J. Asian Earth Sci. 20, p. 567- 588.
Fontaine, H. and S. Gafoer (1989)- The Lower Permian. In: H. Fontaine and S. Gafoer (eds.) The Pre-Tertiary fossils of Sumatra and their environments, CCOP Techn. Publ. TP 19, Bangkok, p. 47-51.
Fontaine, H. and S. Gafoer (1989)- The Middle Permian. In: H. Fontaine and S. Gafoer (eds.) The Pre-Tertiary fossils of Sumatra and their environments, CCOP Techn. Publ. TP 19, Bangkok, p. 99-112.
Wanner, J., 1926. Die marine Permfauna von Timor. Geol. Rundschau 17a, Sonderband (Steinmann Festschrift), p. 20-48.
Early Permian Cold-climate Bivalves and Brachiopods
Early Permian glacial marine deposits across northern Gondwana (Australia, India, etc.) often contain thick-shelled bivalves of the genera Atomodesma (Figure 5) and Eurydesma and the cool-climate brachiopod Globiella foordi (now also called Cimmeriella foordi). Comparable bivalve assemblages may be present in the Early Permian of the Sibumasu - Cimmerian terranes now in Sumatra, NW Malaysia, W Thailand and SW China (Sun 1993).
In Indonesia assemblages with these genera were found in the Early Permian Maubisse Formation of Timor (Beyrich 1865, Wanner 1922, 1940, Hasibuan 1994), but they are associated with relatively diverse marine faunas and glacio-marine deposits are not known from Timor. These faunas may suggest a proximity to glacial Gondwana of this part of Timor in earliest Permian time, but are not necessarily part of the glaciated terranes.
The presence in Timor Leste of a diverse fusulinid assemblage interpreted as of latest Carboniferous - earliest Permian age and presumably representing a relatively warm climate (Davydov et al. 2013) is puzzling in the context of widespread glaciations on Gondwana at this time.
Hasibuan, F., 1994. Fauna Gondwana dari Formasi Maubisse, Timor Timur. Proc. 23rd Ann. Conv. Indon. Assoc. Geol. (IAGI), Jakarta, 1, p. 104-111.
Permian Corals
Permian corals, generally in carbonate lithologies and associated with fusulinid larger foraminifera, are relatively widespread in SE Asia. Assemblage compositions differ with age, water depth and with paleogeographic position. Early Permian limestones from the Indochina terrane (East Thailand, etc.) contain typical 'Cathaysian', tropical, high-diversity coral and fusulinid assemblages, dominated by compound corals, while in the Early Permian of the Sibumasu Terrane corals are absent or dominated by small, solitary rugose corals, reflecting cooler and/or deeper waters (e.g. Peninsular Thailand; Fontaine et al. 1994, Yunnan, SW China; Wang and Sugiyama 2002). The low diversity assemblages dominated by solitary rugose coral species, have been called 'Lytvolasma faunas' or 'Cyathaxonia faunas'. They are generally viewed as 'anti-tropical', cooler climate coral assemblages (Kossovaya 2009). By late Middle and Late Permian time the Sibumasu terranes had moved towards tropical latitudes and started to have similar high-diversity coral and fusulinid faunas as the Indochina terranes.
In Indonesia Permian coral faunas are known mainly from:
1. Timor (Figure 6). Permian corals are locally very abundant in the Maubisse Formation/ Basleo beds. They are mainly 'Cythaxonia-faunas' with solitary corals like Lytvolasma, Timorphyllum, Lophophyllidium, Verbeekiella (incl. Verbeekiella australis Beyrich; Figure 7), Zaphrentis, Amplexus and Wannerophyllum. Colonial rugose corals like Michelinia, Favosites, Lonsdaleia timorica (Figure 7) and L. molengraaffi are present as well, but are relatively rare (Gerth 1921, Koker 1924, Wang 1947, Von Schouppe and Stacul 1955). The Timor Permian coral assemblages are very similar to those reported from the Baoshan Block, SW China (Zhao and Zhou 1987).
2. Sumatra. Corals have been reported from several localities in West Sumatra. Some of the Middle Permian limestones from West Sumatra contain high diversity corals that look similar to 'Cathaysian' assemblages of Central Thailand (Guguk Bulat; Fontaine 1983, 1989).
3. West Papua. Permian corals are widely distributed in the Aifam Fm (Visser and Hermes 1962, p. 54), including solitary Amplexus on the Birds Head (Broili 1924). However, typical low-latitude compound corals appear to be absent here (Fontaine et al. 1994, p. 39).
Gerth (1926) already noted that the Permian coral fauna of Timor indicated a relatively warm paleoclimate, while Permian deposits on adjacent Australia contained glacial deposits, suggesting that Timor and Australia must have been farther apart in Permian time.  However, if the Permian corals on Timor are younger than the earliest Permian glacial deposits on Gondwana, which they probably are, the contrast may not be as significant.
  • Fontaine, H., 1983. Some Permian corals from the Highlands of Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Publ. Geol. Res. Dev. Centre, Bandung, Paleont. Ser. 4, p. 1-31.
  • Fontaine, H., 1986. Discovery of Lower Permian corals in Sumatra. In: G.H. Teh and S. Paramananthan (eds.) Proc. GEOSEA V Conf., Kuala Lumpur 1984, 1, Geol. Soc. Malaysia Bull. 19, p.183-191.
  • Fontaine, H., 1989. Middle Permian corals of Sumatra. In: H. Fontaine and S. Gafoer (eds.) The Pre-Tertiary fossils of Sumatra and their environments, CCOP Techn. Paper 19, Bangkok, p. 149-165.
  • Gerth, H., 1921. Die Anthozoen der Dyas von Timor. Palaontologie von Timor, Schweizerbart, Stuttgart, 9, 16, p. 65-147.
  • Gerth, H., 1921. Der palaeontologische Character der Anthozoenfauna des Perms von Timor. Nederl. Timor Expeditie 1910-1912, Jaarboek Mijnwezen Ned. Oost-Indie 49 (1920), Verh. III, 1, p. 1-30.
  • Gerth, H., 1926. Die Korallenfauna des Perm von Timor und die Permische Vereisung. Leidsche Geol. Meded. 2, 1, p. 7-14.
  • Koker, E.M.J., 1924. Anthozoa uit het Perm van het eiland Timor. I. Zaphrentidae, Pterophyllidae, Cystiphyllidae, Amphiastreidae. Jaarboek Mijnwezen Nederl. Oost Indië 51 (1922), Verhand., p. 1-50.
  • Von Schouppe, A. and P. Stacul , 1955.- Die Genera Verbeekiella Penecke, Timorphyllum Gerth, Wannerophyllum n. gen., Lophophyllidium Grabau aus dem Perm von Timor. Palaeontographica Suppl. IV, Beitr. Geologie Niederlandisch-Indien 5, 3, p. 95-196.
  • Von Schouppe, A. and P. Stacul, 1959. Saulchenlose Pterocorallia aus dem Perm von Indonesisch Timor (mit Ausnahme der Polycoelidae). Eine morphogenetische und taxonomische Untersuchung. Palaeontographica Suppl. IV, Beitr. Geologie Niederlandisch-Indien 5, 4, p. 197-359.
Permian Ammonoids
Permian ammonoids are generally rare in Indonesia/SE Asia, but the ammonoid assemblages of Timor are among the richest in the world (Smith, 1927, Wanner 1932). Wanner (1926) counted 37 species of ammonoids and 21 nautiloids. Most numerous genera are Agathiceras and Paralegoceras (= Metalegoceras; Figure 8). Another Permian ammonoid locality in Indonesia includes Agathiceras from the folded series of Belitung (Kruizinga, 1950).
Blendinger et al. (1992) noted the remarkable similarity between the Middle Permian ammonoids from the cephalopod limestone of Timor with those from the West Mediterranean (Sosio Lst, Siclily) and Oman, suggesting unrestricted faunal exchange in a Middle Permian seaway along the distal N margin of Gondwana. Ehiro (1997, 1998) classified the Middle Permian ammonoid faunas from 'allochthous Timor' in his' Equatorial Tethyan province', based on the presence of taxa like Timorites and Waagenoceras, which are not known from Australia.

  • Furnish, W.M. and B.F. Glenister, 1971. The Lower Permian Somohole fauna of Timor. In: W.B. Saunders, The Somoholitidae: Mississippian to Permian Ammonoidea. J. Palaeont. 45, p. 100-118.
  • Haniel, C.A., 1915. Ammoniten aus dem Perm der Insel Letti. Jaarboek Mijnwezen Nederl. Oost-Indie 43 (1914) Verhand. 1, p. 161-165.
  • Haniel, C.A., 1915. Die Cephalopoden der Dyas von Timor. Palaontologie von Timor, Schweizerbart, Stuttgart, 3, 6, Schweizerbart, Stuttgart, p. 1-153.
  • Kruizinga, A., 1950. Agathiceras sundaicum Han., a Lower Permian fossil from Timor. (locality should be Belitung) Proc. Kon. Akad. Wetensch. Amsterdam 53, 7, p. 1056-1063.
  • Smith, J.P., 1927. Permian ammonoids of Timor. 2e Nederlandsche Timor-Expeditie 1916, IV, Jaarboek Mijnwezen Nederl.-Indie 55 (1926), Verhand. 1, p. 1-58.
  • Wanner, J., 1932. Zur Kenntnis der permischen Ammonoideen-fauna von Timor. Beitr. Palaeontologie des Ostindischen Archipels III, Neues Jahrbuch Miner., Geol. Pal., Beil. Band 67, B, p. 257-278.


Permian Trilobites

Trilobites are relatively rare in Indonesia, but have been reported only from Permian sediments of Sumatra (Roemer 1880), Timor (Tesch 1923, Gheyselinck, 1937) and float in the Noord River in West Papua (Martin 1911). They are mainly of the genus Pseudophillipsia: P. timorensis Roemer from Basleo, West Timor and P. sumatrensis from the Padang Highlands of West Sumatra (Figure 9).  Leman and Sone (2002) described similar Pseudophillipsia from the early Capitanian (Middle Permian) from Pahang, Central Belt of Malay Peninsula (= west margin of East Malaya/Indochina terrane).



  • Gheyselinck, R.F.C.R., 1937. Permian trilobites from Timor and Sicily. Doct. Thesis University of Amsterdam, Scheltema and Holkema, Amsterdam, 108 p.
  • Roemer, F., 1880. Uber eine Kohlenkalk-fauna der Westkuste von Sumatra. Palaeontographica 27, 3, p. 5-11.
  • Tesch, P., 1923. Trilobiten aus der Dyas von Timor und Letti. Palaeontologie von Timor 12, 21, p. 123-132.

Permian Fusulinid Foraminifera

Fusulinid larger foraminifera are tropical-subtropical shallow marine carbonate taxa (estimated paleolatitude range between 0 and 40° N and S), with a reputation of being excellent guide fossils in Carboniferous - Permian time. Fusulinids are widespread in Permian shallow marine limestones across SE Asia and areas further west, generally on terranes that border the Paleotethys suture. Hundreds of papers have been written on this group in SE Asia. For more details see references in Table 3 and the Permian chapter of the annotated bibliography.

Interpretation of fusulinid foram faunas can be very difficult. The taxonomy is overwhelming, with over 100 genus names and 1000's of species names. In the Permian of Thailand and Malaysia Toriyama (1984) recorded 265 species belonging to 70 genera; in the Permian of Afghanistan Leven (1997) counted 282 species and 58 genera; in the Middle Carboniferous - E Permian of Japan Ota et al. (1997) counted 56 species in 23 genera. These large numbers partly reflect actual high diversity, but probably also reflect overly ambitious splitting of taxa and also the creation of separate sets of names being used by different 'schools'. Fusulinid experts tend to be either from Japanese, Russian or American 'schools', each working with their own sets of species names, many of which are undoubtedly synonyms of named species from other regions. Difficulties in fusulinid identifications are also illustrated by comments of fusulinid experts themselves, who frequently disagree with each other on species identifications and genus attributions. So, while fusulinids are a powerful tool in Permian limestone biostratigraphy, the apparent taxonomic disarray makes it hard to determine exact ages and establish paleobiogeographic relationships between regions.
Fusulinids reached a maximum in diversity and sizes in the Middle Permian, as did other reefal fauna (corals, large molluscs, etc.). A significant extinction event of large fusulinids took place at the end of the Middle Permian (end or late Capitanian; e.g. Hada et al. 2014). The Late Permian is characterized by fusulinid assemblages that are reduced in size and diversity. Fusulinids went completely extinct at the mass extinction event at the end of the Permian.
In Indonesia Permian fusulinid foraminifera have been reported from 6-7 main areas, mainly on Sumatra, NW Borneo, Timor and the Birds Head of West Papua:
1. NW Kalimantan-Sarawak border area. The oldest fusulinids in Indonesia are from the Late Carboniferous - earliest Permian 'Terbat Limestone' of the NW Kalimantan- Sarawak border area. They were first reported by Krekeler (1932, 1933), and by several generations of subsequent authors (Table 3). Fusulinid assemblages are quite diverse and similar to 'Tethyan' faunas from E Thailand and S China (Cummings 1962, Vachard 1990, Fontaine 1990, Sakamoto and Ishibashi, 2002), from a time when glacial deposits were widespread on Gondwanaland and Gondwanaland-derived terranes like Sibumasu. Pebbles of this fusulinid limestone were also found in conglomerates of Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous age in W Sarawak and also in the basal Eocene of the NW Kutai Basin. Tan Sin Hok (in Krekeler 1933) examined the fusulinid beds from Sadong valley and believed them to be same species (and same volcanoclastic facies) as the Early Permian assemblages of Jambi. Fontaine (1990) believed these to be of Late Carboniferous - earliest Permian age.  The age and nature of the Terbat Limestone assemblages clearly demonstrates affinities to the Indochina Block, not Gondwana or Sibumasu (as do associated Triassic-Jurassic faunas and floras). The Terbat localities used to regarded as part of SW Borneo terrane, but recently they were placed in a separate small block of Indochina affinity named Semitau Block by Metcalfe (2013);
2. Padang Highlands, West Sumatra (Figure 10). Middle Permian fusulinids have long been known from the Padang Highlands of West Sumatra, mainly from the famous Guguk Bulat locality. Several of the large Middle Permian fusulinid index species of the Tethyan province were first described from Sumatra, like Verbeekina verbeeki (Geinitz, 1876), Sumatrina annae (Volz, 1904) and Schwagerina padangensis (Lange, 1925). Tien (1988) also recorded Colania douvillei. Many of the fusulinid species described from this part of West Sumatra are also common on the 'Cathaysian' Indochina Block of NE Thailand, but some have also been reported from the Sibumasu terrane, which by the end of the Middle Permian had moved into lower latitudes (e.g. Ueno et al. 2003).
3. Jambi, SW Sumatra. Early Permian fusulinids from the 'Productus Limestone' horizon in the Mengkareng Formation at Telok Gedang along the Merangin River, Jambi, on the 'West Sumatra Block' are of great interest because they underlie the beds with the famous 'Cathaysian' Jambi Flora, which is a significant element in tectonic reconstructions of Sumatra. Fusulinids were analyzed by various specialists (Ozawa 1929, Thompson 1936, Vachard 1990, Ueno et al. 2007). Most abundant is a species named Pseudofusulina rutschi (Thompson), originally assigned to Schwagerina, but subsequently classified in Triticites and Rugofusulina. Rugofusulina rutschi is very similar to a more widely known species R. alpina Schellwien and may be synonymous (Tien 1989). Also present is Pseudoschwagerina meranginensis (assigned to Sphaeroschwagerina by Davydov et al. 2013). It is a low-diversity assemblage that is generally believed to be of Early Permian age, with age interpretations varying from Upper Asselian (Tien 1989, Vachard 1990) to 'most likely Sakmarian' (Ueno 2007). However, since none of the species described from this locality can be tied directly to assemblages elsewhere, any conclusions on precise age and paleobiogeographic affinity would therefore appear to lack a real firm basis. From the nearby Batu Impi locality West of Bangko, fusulinids from thin limestones in the volcanoclastic Palepat Fm, which overlies the beds with Jambi flora, were studied by Tien (1989) and Ueno et al. (2007; moderately rich Artinskian-Kungurian). Two additional small occurrences on Sumatra worth flagging are in West Sumatra (Batang Siputar; Hahn and Weber 1981) and South Sumatra (Bukit Pendopo; Palembang; De Neve 1949).
4. Timor and adjacent islands Leti and Roti. Fusulinids are also known from various localities on Timor, and are also present on adjacent Roti and Leti islands (Schubert 1915a, Thompson 1949, Davydov et al. 2013). Many of the Timor assemblages are of low-diversity, but high abundance, and are dominated by a species initially described as Fusulina wanneri by Schubert (1915), the type species of the 'anti-tropical' genus Monodiexodina (Figure 11). The small fauna of verbeekinids described from Leti Island by Schubert (1915b) with Doliolina lepida var. lettensis differs from assemblages known from Timor (Thompson 1949). Another apparently different latest Carboniferous - earliest Permian assemblage from Timor Leste was described recently by Davydov et al. (2013).
5. Birds Head of West Papua.
Rare fusulinids have been reported from West Papua, the only undisputed occurrences on Permian Gondwanaland, but are poorly documented. One occurrence in the Birds Head was figured by Visser and Hermes (1962, p. 54). Another possible fusulinid occurrence was reported, but not figured, from Permian limestone in a consultant biostratigraphy report of oil exploration well TBF 1X (3947m; NE of Misool in Bintuni Bay, south of Birds Head).

6. Bangka- Belitung. Lesser-known fusulinid localities are in the intensely folded Permian beds of North Bangka (De Roever 1951) and Belitung (Strimple and Yancey 1974).
Three paleogeographic domains may be distinguished in SE Asia, partly based on fusulinids, which are useful for constraining plate reconstructions:
1. 'Tethyan'/Cathaysian', with high diversity fusulinid assemblages (NW Borneo and some of the Timor and West Sumatra fusulinid assemblages?);
2. Subtropical/Warm temperate domains, with low diversity fusulinid assemblages with 'anti-tropical' genera like Monodiexodina and Polydiexodina, in Early Permian, and higher diversity 'Tethyan-affinity' fusulinid assemblages by late Middle Permian (typical of' Cimmerian Transit plates' like Sibumasu (Ueno 2006; in Indonesia Monodiexodina has been reported from Timor and West Sumatra)
3. Gondwanan terranes (India, Australia): contain no fusulinids.
Interesting assemblages of Late Middle Permian smaller benthic foraminifera with the pillared miliolid Shanita amosi, commonly associated with Hemigordius renzi and Hemigordiopsis, have been found in many limestones localities on mainland SE Asia. These are commonly viewed as 'anti-tropical' species and appear to be restricted to the 'Cimmerian'/Sibumasu terranes' (Fontaine et al. 1994, Jin and Yang 2004). Shanita has not been reported from Indonesia, but this may be due to absence of limestones of the right age and facies and/or lack of studies in places like Sumatra. Hemigordius is present in the Murgabian (early M Permian) limestones of Bukit Pendopo, South Sumatra (Tien, 1989). The nearest occurrence of Shanita in the Indonesian region is from 'basement carbonates' (Tampur Formation) in the Singa Besar 1 well, in the Malaysian sector of the Malacca Straits (Fontaine et al. 1992), which is on the Sibumasu Block.
Brady, H.B., 1875. On some fossil foraminifera from the West-coast district, Sumatra. Geol. Mag. 2, p. 532-539.
Davydov, V.I., D.W. Haig and E. McCartain, 2013. A latest Carboniferous warming spike recorded by a fusulinid-rich bioherm in Timor Leste: implications for East Gondwana deglaciation. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclim., Palaeoecol. 376, p. 22-38.
Fontaine, H., C. Chonglakmani, I. Amnan and S. Piyasin, 1994. A well-defined Permian biogeographic unit: peninsular Thailand and northwest Peninsula Malaysia. J. Southeast Asian Earth Sci. 9, p. 129-151.
Jin, X.C. and X.N. Yang, 2004. Paleogeographic implications of the Shanita-Hemigordius fauna (Permian foraminifer) in the reconstruction of Permian Tethys. Episodes 27, 4, p. 273-278.
Lange, E., 1925. Eine mittelpermische Fauna von Guguk Bulat (Padanger Oberland, Sumatra). Verh. Geol. Mijnbouwk. Gen. Nederl. Kol., Geol. Ser. 7, 3, p. 213-295.
Schubert, R., 1915. Die Foraminiferen des jungeren Palaozoikums von Timor. Palaontologie von Timor, Schweizerbart, Stuttgart, 2, 3, p. 47-60.
Schubert, R., 1915. Uber Foraminiferengesteine der Insel Letti. Jaarboek Mijnwezen Nederl. Oost-Indie 43 (1914), Verhand. 1, p. 169-187.
Thompson, M.L., 1936. The fusulinid genus Verbeekina. J. Paleontology 10, 3, p. 193-201.
Thompson, M.L., 1936. Lower Permian fusulinids from Sumatra. J. Paleontology 10, 7, p. 587-592.
Tien, Nguyen D., 1986. Foraminifera and algae from the Permian of Guguk Bulat and Silungkang, Sumatra. United Nations CCOP Techn. Bull. 18, p. 138-147.
Ueno, K., 2003. The Permian fusulinoidean faunas of the Sibumasu and Baoshan blocks: their implications for the paleogeographic and paleoclimatologic reconstruction of the Cimmerian Continent. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclim., Palaeoecol. 193, p. 1-24.
Ueno, K., 2006. The Permian antitropical fusulinoidean genus Monodiexodina: distribution, taxonomy, paleobiogeography and paleoecology. J. Asian Earth Sci. 26, p. 380-404.
Ueno, K., S. Nishikawa, I.M.van Waveren, F. Hasibuan et al., 2006. Early Permian fusuline faunas of the Mengkarang and Palepat Formations in the West Sumatra Block, Indonesia: their faunal characteristics, age and geotectonic implications. In: Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. Geological anatomy of E and S Asia, paleogeography and paleoenvironment in Eastern Tethys (IGCP 516), Quezon City, p. 98-102.
Volz, W., 1904. Zur Geologie von Sumatra. Beobachtungen und Studien, Anhang II, Einige neue Foraminiferen und Korallen sowie Hydrokorallen aus dem Obercarbon Sumatras. Geol. Palaeont. Abh., Jena, N.F. 6, 2, 112, p. 177-194.
Permian Brachiopods
In Indonesia Permian brachiopods are known from Sumatra, Timor and West Papua (Table 3). The principal monographs on Indonesian brachiopods are by Broili (1915, 1916), Hamlet (1928) and Wanner and Sieverts (1935), all from Timor. Permian brachiopods were described from Sumatra by Meyer (1922) and West Papua by Archbold (1981).
Productus and Spirifer groups dominate the Timor and West Papua assemblages (Figure 12). The brachiopod faunas from Timor are relatively rich (49 species). However, unlike many other fossil groups from Timor like crinoids and blastoids, no new species were identified in the first monograph on this group by Broili (1916), attesting to the relatively cosmopolitan nature of these brachiopod taxa. Studies on paleobiogeographic patterns within Permian brachiopod assemblages therefore appear to have been somewhat non-diagnostic, due to the widespread geographic distribution of many of the taxa. Crippa et al. (2014) also noted that Indonesian Permian brachiopod faunas show very low endemicity, consisting mainly of Boreal and Palaeoequatorial genera.

The genus Stereochia (Figure 12-2,-3 is of interest because it is commonly regarded as an anti-tropical genus (Shi et al. 1995, Crippa et al. 2014). In mainland SE Asia Stereochia-Meekella brachiopod fauna characterizes the Sibumasu terrane in Peninsular Thailand and the NW Malay Peninsula (Fang 1994). In Indonesia Stereochia was reported as 'Productus semireticulatus' from Timor (Beyrich 1865, Broili 1916) and from the Padang Highlands, West Sumatra (Woodward 1879). It is also the dominant brachiopod genus associated with the Early Permian Jambi flora of SW Sumatra (S. semireticulatus or S. irianensis; Hasibuan et al. 2000, Crippa et al. 2014).



Archbold, N.W., 1981. Permian brachiopods from western Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Geol. Res. Dev. Centre, Bandung, Paleont. Ser. 2, p. 1-25.

Broili, F., 1915. Permische Brachiopoden der Insel Letti. Jaarboek Mijnwezen Nederl. Oost-Indie 43 (1914) Verhand. 1, p. 187-207.

Broili, F., 1916. Die Permischen Brachiopoden von Timor. Palaeontologie von Timor, Schweizerbart, Stuttgart, VII, 12, p. 1-104.

Broili, F., 1922. Permische Brachiopoden von Rotti. Jaarboek Mijnwezen Nederl. Oost-Indie 49 (1920), Verhand. 3, p. 223-227.

Crippa, G., L. Angiolini, I. Van Waveren, M.J. Crow, F. Hasibuan, M.H. Stephenson and K. Ueno, 2014. Brachiopods, fusulines and palynomorphs of the Mengkarang Formation (Early Permian, Sumatra) and their palaeobiogeographical significance. J. Asian Earth Sci. 79, p. 206-223.

Hamlet, B., 1928. Permische Brachiopoden, Lamellibranchiaten und Gastropoden von Timor. In: 2e Nederlandsche Timor-Expeditie, Jaarboek Mijnwezen Nederl.-Indie 56 (1927), Verh. 2, p. 1-115.

Hasibuan, F., S. Andi Mangga and Suyoko, 2000. Stereochia semireticulatus (Martin) dari Formasi Mengkarang, Jambi, Sumatra. Geol. Res. Dev. Centre, Paleont. Ser. 10, Bandung, p. 59-69.

Leman, M.S., 1994. The significance of Upper Permian brachiopods from Merapoh area, northwest Pahang. Geol. Soc. Malaysia Bull. 35, p. 113-121.

Shi, G.R. and N.W. Archbold, 1995. Permian brachiopod faunal sequences of the Shan-Thai terrane: biostratigraphy, palaeobiogeographical affinities and plate tectonic/palaeoclimatic implications. J. Southeast Asian Earth Sci. 11, p. 177-187.

Tan Sin Hok, 1933. Uber Leptodus (Lyttonia auctorum) cf. tenuis (Waagen) vom Padanger Oberland (Mittel Sumatra). Wetensch. Meded. Dienst Mijnbouw Nederl. Indie 25, p. 66-70.

Wanner, J. and H. Sieverts, 1935. Zur Kenntnis der permischen Brachiopoden von Timor. 1. Lyttoniidae und ihre biologische und stammesgeschichtliche Bedeutung. Beitr. Palaeontologie des ostindischen Archipels 12, Neues Jahrbuch Miner. Geol. Palaont., Beil. Band 74, B, p. 201-281.

Waterhouse, J.B., 1973. Permian brachiopod correlations for South-East Asia. Proc. Regional Conf. Geology of Southeast Asia, Bull. Geol. Soc. Malaysia. 6, p. 187-210.


Permian Crinoids and Blastoids

Timor Island has long been famous for its unique Permian deposits with abundant, diverse and well-preserved crinoid and blastoid faunas. Wanner (1923) identified 239 crinoid species in 75 genera. Two-thirds of these species are not known outside Timor (Wanner 1924, Webster 1998). Half of all crinoid species are poteriocrinids, with dominant genera Timorocrinus, Ceriocrinus, Parabursacrinus, etc.

Most of the Timor crinoids and blastoids are from red-brown marls and tuffs with interbedded limestones, a formation named Maubisse Formation in Timor Leste or Sonnebait Series in older literature on West Timor (Figure 13). They were believed to be relatively warm, shallow marine deposits, but they may actually be mostly hemi-pelagic organisms that ended up in clastic-free deep water carbonates that are often associated with basic volcanics (seamounts?). The richest occurrences are in the Basleo area near Niki-Niki, and are probably from exotic blocks in Neogene melange deposits. Associated cephalopods suggest these are probably mainly of Middle Permian age (Haniel 1915). Crinoid assemblages from the Amarassi region of SW Timor are less diverse and probably of Late Permian age (Wanner 1923).

Blastoid assemblages of Timor have the highest abundances and diversity in the world. Of the 13 Permian blastoid genera known from Timor only three or four also occur outside Timor. The main monographs on blastoids are Wanner (1924, 1940, Figures 14, 15).

The only other place in SE Asia where some of the Timor species of crinoids and blastoids were found is in the late Early-Middle Permian Ratburi Limestone of Peninsular Thailand (Racey et al. 1994; Sibumasu Terrane; Figure 16). Species of 'Basleo fauna' include the crinoids Timorocrinus pumulus Wanner 1924, Parabursacrinus and Timorocidaris sphaeracantha Wanner 1920, and the blastoid Deltoblastus permicus (Wanner 1910). Outside SE Asia rare Deltoblastus have been reported from Oman and Sicily, both also on Cimmerian terranes. Although they are present in much smaller numbers in Peninsular Thailand than at the Timor localities, their presence does suggest they were in the same faunal province around Artinskian time.



Breimer, A. and D.B. Macurda, 1972. The phylogeny of the fissiculate blastoids. Verhand. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Amsterdam, ser. 1, 26, 3, p. 1-390.

De Marez Oyens, F.A.H.W., 1940. Neue Permische Krinoiden von Timor, mit Bemerkungen über deren Vorkommen im Basleogebiet. In: H.A. Brouwer (ed.) Geological Expedition of the University of Amsterdam to the Lesser Sunda Islands, etc., 1937, Noord Hollandsche Publ., Amsterdam, 1, p. 285-348.

Wanner, J., 1916. Die permischen Echinodermen von Timor I. In: J. Wanner (ed.) Palaontologie von Timor 6, 11, Schweizerbart, Stuttgart, p. 1-329.

Wanner, J., 1923. Die permischen Krinoiden von Timor. In: H.A. Brouwer (ed.) 2e Nederlandsche Timor-Expeditie 1916, II, Jaarboek Mijnwezen Nederl. Oost-Indie 50 (1921), Verh. 3, p. 1-348.

Wanner, J., 1924. Die permischen Blastoiden von Timor. Jaarboek Mijnwezen Nederl. Oost-Indie 51 (1922), Verhand. 1, p. 163-233.

Wanner, J., 1929. Neue Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Permischen Echinodermen von Timor. I. Allagecrinus, II. Hypocrinites. Dienst Mijnbouw Nederl. Indie, Wetensch. Meded. 11, p. 1-116.

Wanner, J., 1940. Neue Blastoideen aus dem Perm von Timor, mit einem Beitrag zur Systematik der Blastoiden. In: H.A. Brouwer (ed.) Geological Expedition of the University of Amsterdam to the Lesser Sunda Islands, etc., 1937, 1, Noord Hollandsche Publ. Co., Amsterdam, p. 215-277.

Webster, G.D., 1998. Palaeobiogeography of Tethys Permian crinoids. In: G.R. Shi, N.W. Archbold and M. Grover (eds.) Strzelecki Int. Symposium on Permian of Eastern Tethys: biostratigraphy, palaeogeography and resources, Proc. Royal Soc. Victoria 110, 1-2, p. 289-308.
Permian Floras

Permian plant fossils, associated with thin coal beds, are known from West Sumatra and West Papua. Early Permian warm-Cathaysian floras are known from Sumatra and NW Kalimantan, while cooler-Gondwanan Glossopteris floras are present in West Papua (but mixed with some Cathaysian elements).

Permian floras have long been used in reconstructions of tectonic plates, with the presence of the tree-like seed fern Glossopteris typical of Gondwana (Australia- India) and Gigantopteris floras characteristic of low-latitude, 'Cathaysian' terranes (South China, Indochina). The Cathaysian nature of the Jambi flora played an important role in the plate reconstruction history of Sumatra (Barber et al. 2005).


Jambi Flora, W Sumatra

The famous Early Permian 'Jambi flora' from the Merangin River area in SW Sumatra was originally discovered by Tobler, and first described by Jongmans and Gothan (1925) (Figure 17). The flora was initially viewed as of Euramerican affinity, without Gondwanan or Cathaysian Gigantopteris flora elements. However, after the Jambi paleobotanical expedition of 1925-1927, Jongmans and Gothan (1935) also recognized some North Cathaysian species.


The Jambi flora was recently re-sampled and studied by a group from the Naturalis Museum, Leiden, and the Geological Survey of Indonesia (Van Waveren et al., 2007, Booi et al., 2009). They also recognize affinities to Cathaysian flora, but argue that is not a fully Cathaysian flora, but its greatest similarity is with floras from North China, either the Artinskian Shansi Series (Asama et al. 1975) or the Kungurian Lower Shihhotse beds (Van Waveren et al. 2007). The Jambi Flora is probably best characterized as a late Early Permian temperate subgroup of the true low-latitude Cathaysian floral province.

The age of the Jambi flora is Early Permian, but exactly what stage of the Early Permian has not been definitively established. Low diversity fusulinid foraminifera from underlying limestone beds appear to be of a rather endemic nature, which different fusulinid experts have interpreted as Late Asselian or Sakmarian (see above).

Permian plant assemblages are also known from West Papua, both the Birds Head and areas south of the Central Range. They were first described by Jongmans (1940, 1941), who documented only Cathaysian and Euramerican species (Taeniopteris, Pecopteris, Sphenophyllum). Hopping and Wagner (in Visser and Hermes 1962) also recognized Gondwanan Glossopteris and Vertebraria. The West Papua floras are generally viewed as mixed floras, dominated by Gondwanan elements, but with common Cathaysian elements (Asama et al. 1975, Li and Wu 1994, Rigby 1998, 2001).

A poorly known Permian plant assemblage was also reported from SE Belitung island by Van Overeem (1960). It was provisionally identified by Jongmans as a Permian Cathaysian (Gigantopteris) flora, but has never been described. No plant fossils are known from Timor, mainly because all Permian sediments are in marine facies.
The existence of mixed Gondwanan-Cathaysian floras in West Papua (and in parts of mainland SE Asia like Thailand and Laos is significant for Permian plate reconstructions. Because Glossopteris and many Cathaysian plants like Gigantopteris have relatively large seeds, which are unlikely be dispersed across wide oceans, these mixed Permian floras suggest some configuration of land connections (or only very narrow seaways) between the 'Cathaysian' and Gondwana provinces in Permian time, not a wide Paleotethys Ocean.
Asama, K., 1976. Gigantopteris flora in Southeast Asia and its phytopalaeogeographic significance. In: T. Kobayashi & R. Toriyama (eds.) Geology and Palaeontology of SE Asia, University of Tokyo Press, 17, p. 191-207.
Booi, M., I.M. van Waveren and J.H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, 2009. Comia and Rhachiphyllum from the early Permian of Sumatra, Indonesia. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynology 156, p. 418-435.
Booi, M., I.M. van Waveren and J.H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, 2009. The Jambi gigantopterids and their place in gigantopterid classification. Botanical J. Linnean Soc. 161, 3, p. 302-328.
Hopping, C.H. and R.H. Wagner, 1962. Enclosure 17, Photographs of fossils. In: W.A. Visser & J.J. Hermes, Geological results of the exploration for oil in Netherlands New Guinea, Kon. Nederl. Geol. Mijnbouwkundig Genootschap, Geol. Ser. 20, p. 1-11.
Jongmans, W.J., 1940. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Karbonflora von Niederlandisch Neu Guinea. Mededelingen Geol. Stichting 1938-1939, p. 263-274.
Jongmans, W.J. & W. Gothan, 1925. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Flora des Oberkarbons von Sumatra. Verhand. Geol. Mijnbouwk. Gen. Nederl. Kol., Geol. Ser., 8, p. 279-303.
Jongmans, W.J. & W. Gothan, 1935. Die Ergebnisse der palaobotanischen Djambi-Expedition 1925. 2. Die palaeobotanischen Ergebnisse. Jaarboek Mijnwezen Nederl. Indie (1930), 59, Verhand. 2, p. 71-201.
Li, X.X. and X.Y. Wu, 1994. The Cathaysian and Gondwana floras; their contribution to determining the boundary between eastern Gondwana and Laurasia. J. Southeast Asian Earth Sci. 9, 4, p. 309-317.
Playford, G. & J.F. Rigby, 2008. Permian palynoflora of the Ainim and Aiduna formations, West Papua. Revista Espanola Micropal. 40, 1-2, p. 1-57.
Rigby, J.F., 1998. Upper Palaeozoic floras of SE Asia. In: R. Hall & J.D. Holloway (eds.) Biogeography and geological evolution of SE Asia, Backhuys Publ., Leiden, p. 73-82.
Rigby, J.F., 1998. Glossopteris occurrences in the Permian of Irian Jaya (West New Guinea). In: G.R. Shi, N.W. Archbold & M. Grover (eds.) Strzelecki Int. Symposium on Permian of Eastern Tethys: biostratigraphy, palaeogeography and resources, Proc. Royal Soc. Victoria 110, 1-2, p. 309-315.
Rigby, J.F., 2001. A review of the Early Permian flora from Papua (West New Guinea). In: I. Metcalfe, J.M.B. Smith et al. (eds.) Faunal and floral migrations and evolution in SE Asia- Australasia, A.A. Balkema, Lisse, p. 85-95.
Srivastava, A.K. & D. Agnihotri, 2010. Dilemma of Late Palaeozoic mixed floras in Gondwana. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclim., Palaeoecol. 298, p. 54-69.
Van Waveren, I.M., E.A.P. Iskandar, M. Booi and J.H.A. van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, 2007. Composition and palaeogeographic position of the Early Permian Jambi flora from Sumatra. Scripta Geol. 135, p. 1-28.
The Indonesian region is host to some important localities of Paleozoic fossil faunas and floras. This paper reviews some of the current knowledge and provides references to the many paleontological studies conducted here in the last 150 years.
Key references are given at the end of each chapter. Additional titles not fully referenced here can be found in the Bibliography below (with English translations of non-English titles and many with brief annotations of content).
Van Gorsel, J.T., 2013. Bibliography of the geology of Indonesia and surrounding areas, 5th Edition, 1655p. (online at
Van Gorsel, J.T., 2014. Annotated bibliography of biostratigraphy and paleontology of Indonesia- SE Asia. Berita Sedimentologi 29, Supplement (29A), p. 3-337. (online at